skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on August 16, 2024

Title: Optimal encoding of oscillators into more oscillators

Bosonic encoding of quantum information into harmonic oscillators is a hardware efficient approach to battle noise. In this regard, oscillator-to-oscillator codes not only provide an additional opportunity in bosonic encoding, but also extend the applicability of error correction to continuous-variable states ubiquitous in quantum sensing and communication. In this work, we derive the optimal oscillator-to-oscillator codes among the general family of Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP)-stablizer codes for homogeneous noise. We prove that an arbitrary GKP-stabilizer code can be reduced to a generalized GKP two-mode-squeezing (TMS) code. The optimal encoding to minimize the geometric mean error can be constructed from GKP-TMS codes with an optimized GKP lattice and TMS gains. For single-mode data and ancilla, this optimal code design problem can be efficiently solved, and we further provide numerical evidence that a hexagonal GKP lattice is optimal and strictly better than the previously adopted square lattice. For the multimode case, general GKP lattice optimization is challenging. In the two-mode data and ancilla case, we identify the D4 lattice—a 4-dimensional dense-packing lattice—to be superior to a product of lower dimensional lattices. As a by-product, the code reduction allows us to prove a universal no-threshold-theorem for arbitrary oscillators-to-oscillators codes based on Gaussian encoding, even when the ancilla are not GKP states.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
2142882 2240641
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Verein zur Förderung des Open Access Publizierens in den Quantenwissenschaften
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Quantum many-body systems involving bosonic modes or gauge fields have infinite-dimensional local Hilbert spaces which must be truncated to perform simulations of real-time dynamics on classical or quantum computers. To analyze the truncation error, we develop methods for bounding the rate of growth of local quantum numbers such as the occupation number of a mode at a lattice site, or the electric field at a lattice link. Our approach applies to various models of bosons interacting with spins or fermions, and also to both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories. We show that if states in these models are truncated by imposing an upper limit Λ on each local quantum number, and if the initial state has low local quantum numbers, then an error at most ϵ can be achieved by choosing Λ to scale polylogarithmically with ϵ − 1 , an exponential improvement over previous bounds based on energy conservation. For the Hubbard-Holstein model, we numerically compute a bound on Λ that achieves accuracy ϵ , obtaining significantly improved estimates in various parameter regimes. We also establish a criterion for truncating the Hamiltonian with a provable guarantee on the accuracy of time evolution. Building on that result, we formulate quantum algorithms for dynamical simulation of lattice gauge theories and of models with bosonic modes; the gate complexity depends almost linearly on spacetime volume in the former case, and almost quadratically on time in the latter case. We establish a lower bound showing that there are systems involving bosons for which this quadratic scaling with time cannot be improved. By applying our result on the truncation error in time evolution, we also prove that spectrally isolated energy eigenstates can be approximated with accuracy ϵ by truncating local quantum numbers at Λ = polylog ( ϵ − 1 ) . 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We propose an architecture of quantum-error-correction-based quantum repeaters that combines techniques used in discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information. Specifically, we propose to encode the transmitted qubits in a concatenated code consisting of two levels. On the first level we use a continuous-variable GKP code encoding the qubit in a single bosonic mode. On the second level we use a small discrete-variable code. Such an architecture has two important features. Firstly, errors on each of the two levels are corrected in repeaters of two different types. This enables for achieving performance needed in practical scenarios with a reduced cost with respect to an architecture for which all repeaters are the same. Secondly, the use of continuous-variable GKP code on the lower level generates additional analog information which enhances the error-correcting capabilities of the second-level code such that long-distance communication becomes possible with encodings consisting of only four or seven optical modes.

    more » « less
  3. Quantum error correction has recently been shown to benefit greatly from specific physical encodings of the code qubits. In particular, several researchers have considered the individual code qubits being encoded with the continuous variable GottesmanKitaev-Preskill (GKP) code, and then imposed an outer discrete-variable code such as the surface code on these GKP qubits. Under such a concatenation scheme, the analog information from the inner GKP error correction improves the noise threshold of the outer code. However, the surface code has vanishing rate and demands a lot of resources with growing distance. In this work, we concatenate the GKP code with generic quantum low-density parity-check (QLDPC) codes and demonstrate a natural way to exploit the GKP analog information in iterative decoding algorithms. We first show the noise thresholds for two lifted product QLDPC code families, and then show the improvements of noise thresholds when the iterative decoder – a hardware-friendly min-sum algorithm (MSA) – utilizes the GKP analog information. We also show that, when the GKP analog information is combined with a sequential update schedule for MSA, the scheme surpasses the well-known CSS Hamming bound for these code families. Furthermore, we observe that the GKP analog information helps the iterative decoder in escaping harmful trapping sets in the Tanner graph of the QLDPC code, thereby eliminating or significantly lowering the error floor of the logical error rate curves. Finally, we discuss new fundamental and practical questions that arise from this work on channel capacity under GKP analog information, and on improving decoder design and analysis. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Quantum annealing is a promising approach to heuristically solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. However, the connectivity limitations in current devices lead to an exponential degradation of performance on general problems. We propose an architecture for a quantum annealer that achieves full connectivity and full programmability while using a number of physical resources only linear in the number of spins. We do so by application of carefully engineered periodic modulations of oscillator-based qubits, resulting in a Floquet Hamiltonian in which all the interactions are tunable. This flexibility comes at the cost of the coupling strengths between qubits being smaller than they would be compared with direct coupling, which increases the demand on coherence times with increasing problem size. We analyze a specific hardware proposal of our architecture based on Josephson parametric oscillators. Our results show how the minimum-coherence-time requirements imposed by our scheme scale, and we find that the requirements are not prohibitive for fully connected problems with up to at least 1000 spins. Our approach could also have impact beyond quantum annealing, since it readily extends to bosonic quantum simulators, and would allow the study of models with arbitrary connectivity between lattice sites.

    more » « less
  5. Time-frequency (TF) filtering of analog signals has played a crucial role in the development of radio-frequency communications and is currently being recognized as an essential capability for communications, both classical and quantum, in the optical frequency domain. How best to design optical time-frequency (TF) filters to pass a targeted temporal mode (TM), and to reject background (noise) photons in the TF detection window? The solution for ‘coherent’ TF filtering is known—the quantum pulse gate—whereas the conventional, more common method is implemented by a sequence of incoherent spectral filtering and temporal gating operations. To compare these two methods, we derive a general formalism for two-stage incoherent time-frequency filtering, finding expressions for signal pulse transmission efficiency, and for the ability to discriminate TMs, which allows the blocking of unwanted background light. We derive the tradeoff between efficiency and TM discrimination ability, and find a remarkably concise relation between these two quantities and the time-bandwidth product of the combined filters. We apply the formalism to two examples—rectangular filters or Gaussian filters—both of which have known orthogonal-function decompositions. The formalism can be applied to any state of light occupying the input temporal mode, e.g., ‘classical’ coherent-state signals or pulsed single-photon states of light. In contrast to the radio-frequency domain, where coherent detection is standard and one can use coherent matched filtering to reject noise, in the optical domain direct detection is optimal in a number of scenarios where the signal flux is extremely small. Our analysis shows how the insertion loss and SNR change when one uses incoherent optical filters to reject background noise, followed by direct detection, e.g. photon counting. We point out implications in classical and quantum optical communications. As an example, we study quantum key distribution, wherein strong rejection of background noise is necessary to maintain a high quality of entanglement, while high signal transmission is needed to ensure a useful key generation rate.

    more » « less