skip to main content

Title: Measurement of the $$\gamma n\rightarrow K^0\Sigma ^0$$ differential cross section over the $$K^*$$ threshold

The differential cross section for the quasi-free photoproduction reaction$$\gamma n\rightarrow K^0\Sigma ^0$$γnK0Σ0was measured at BGOOD at ELSA from threshold to a centre-of-mass energy of$$2400\,\hbox {MeV}$$2400MeV. Close to threshold the results are consistent with existing data and are in agreement with partial wave analysis solutions over the full measured energy range, with a large coupling to the$$\Delta (1900)1/2^-$$Δ(1900)1/2-evident. This is the first dataset covering the$$K^*$$Kthreshold region, where there are model predictions of dynamically generated vector meson-baryon resonance contributions.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The European Physical Journal A
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Thin film evaporation is a widely-used thermal management solution for micro/nano-devices with high energy densities. Local measurements of the evaporation rate at a liquid-vapor interface, however, are limited. We present a continuous profile of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient ($$h_{\text {evap}}$$hevap) in the submicron thin film region of a water meniscus obtained through local measurements interpreted by a machine learned surrogate of the physical system. Frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), a non-contact laser-based method with micrometer lateral resolution, is used to induce and measure the meniscus evaporation. A neural network is then trained using finite element simulations to extract the$$h_{\text {evap}}$$hevapprofile from the FDTR data. For a substrate superheat of 20 K, the maximum$$h_{\text {evap}}$$hevapis$$1.0_{-0.3}^{+0.5}$$1.0-0.3+0.5 MW/$$\text {m}^2$$m2-K at a film thickness of$$15_{-3}^{+29}$$15-3+29 nm. This ultrahigh$$h_{\text {evap}}$$hevapvalue is two orders of magnitude larger than the heat transfer coefficient for single-phase forced convection or evaporation from a bulk liquid. Under the assumption of constant wall temperature, our profiles of$$h_{\text {evap}}$$hevapand meniscus thickness suggest that 62% of the heat transfer comes from the region lying 0.1–1 μm from the meniscus edge, whereas just 29% comes from the next 100 μm.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    In a Merlin–Arthur proof system, the proof verifier (Arthur) accepts valid proofs (from Merlin) with probability 1, and rejects invalid proofs with probability arbitrarily close to 1. The running time of such a system is defined to be the length of Merlin’s proof plus the running time of Arthur. We provide new Merlin–Arthur proof systems for some key problems in fine-grained complexity. In several cases our proof systems have optimal running time. Our main results include:

    Certifying that a list ofnintegers has no 3-SUM solution can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$$\tilde{O}(n)$$O~(n). Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that the problem has a nondeterministic algorithm running in$$\tilde{O}(n^{1.5})$$O~(n1.5)time (that is, there is a proof system with proofs of length$$\tilde{O}(n^{1.5})$$O~(n1.5)and a deterministic verifier running in$$\tilde{O}(n^{1.5})$$O~(n1.5)time).

    Counting the number ofk-cliques with total edge weight equal to zero in ann-node graph can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$${\tilde{O}}(n^{\lceil k/2\rceil })$$O~(nk/2)(where$$k\ge 3$$k3). For oddk, this bound can be further improved for sparse graphs: for example, counting the number of zero-weight triangles in anm-edge graph can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$${\tilde{O}}(m)$$O~(m). Previous Merlin–Arthur protocols by Williams [CCC’16] and Björklund and Kaski [PODC’16] could only countk-cliques in unweighted graphs, and had worse running times for smallk.

    Computing the All-Pairs Shortest Distances matrix for ann-node graph can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$$\tilde{O}(n^2)$$O~(n2). Note this is optimal, as the matrix can have$$\Omega (n^2)$$Ω(n2)nonzero entries in general. Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that this problem has an$$\tilde{O}(n^{2.94})$$O~(n2.94)nondeterministic time algorithm.

    Certifying that ann-variablek-CNF is unsatisfiable can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$$2^{n/2 - n/O(k)}$$2n/2-n/O(k). We also observe an algebrization barrier for the previous$$2^{n/2}\cdot \textrm{poly}(n)$$2n/2·poly(n)-time Merlin–Arthur protocol of R. Williams [CCC’16] for$$\#$$#SAT: in particular, his protocol algebrizes, and we observe there is no algebrizing protocol fork-UNSAT running in$$2^{n/2}/n^{\omega (1)}$$2n/2/nω(1)time. Therefore we have to exploit non-algebrizing properties to obtain our new protocol.

    Certifying a Quantified Boolean Formula is true can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$$2^{4n/5}\cdot \textrm{poly}(n)$$24n/5·poly(n). Previously, the only nontrivial result known along these lines was an Arthur–Merlin–Arthur protocol (where Merlin’s proof depends on some of Arthur’s coins) running in$$2^{2n/3}\cdot \textrm{poly}(n)$$22n/3·poly(n)time.

    Due to the centrality of these problems in fine-grained complexity, our results have consequences for many other problems of interest. For example, our work implies that certifying there is no Subset Sum solution tonintegers can be done in Merlin–Arthur time$$2^{n/3}\cdot \textrm{poly}(n)$$2n/3·poly(n), improving on the previous best protocol by Nederlof [IPL 2017] which took$$2^{0.49991n}\cdot \textrm{poly}(n)$$20.49991n·poly(n)time.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The search for neutrino events in correlation with gravitational wave (GW) events for three observing runs (O1, O2 and O3) from 09/2015 to 03/2020 has been performed using the Borexino data-set of the same period. We have searched for signals of neutrino-electron scattering and inverse beta-decay (IBD) within a time window of$$\pm \, 1000$$±1000 s centered at the detection moment of a particular GW event. The search was done with three visible energy thresholds of 0.25, 0.8 and 3.0 MeV. Two types of incoming neutrino spectra were considered: the mono-energetic line and the supernova-like spectrum. GW candidates originated by merging binaries of black holes (BHBH), neutron stars (NSNS) and neutron star and black hole (NSBH) were analyzed separately. Additionally, the subset of most intensive BHBH mergers at closer distances and with larger radiative mass than the rest was considered. In total, follow-ups of 74 out of 93 gravitational waves reported in the GWTC-3 catalog were analyzed and no statistically significant excess over the background was observed. As a result, the strongest upper limits on GW-associated neutrino and antineutrino fluences for all flavors ($$\nu _e, \nu _\mu , \nu _\tau $$νe,νμ,ντ) at the level$$10^9{-}10^{15}~\textrm{cm}^{-2}\,\textrm{GW}^{-1}$$109-1015cm-2GW-1have been obtained in the 0.5–5 MeV neutrino energy range.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Let$$\phi $$ϕbe a positive map from the$$n\times n$$n×nmatrices$$\mathcal {M}_n$$Mnto the$$m\times m$$m×mmatrices$$\mathcal {M}_m$$Mm. It is known that$$\phi $$ϕis 2-positive if and only if for all$$K\in \mathcal {M}_n$$KMnand all strictly positive$$X\in \mathcal {M}_n$$XMn,$$\phi (K^*X^{-1}K) \geqslant \phi (K)^*\phi (X)^{-1}\phi (K)$$ϕ(KX-1K)ϕ(K)ϕ(X)-1ϕ(K). This inequality is not generally true if$$\phi $$ϕis merely a Schwarz map. We show that the corresponding tracial inequality$${{\,\textrm{Tr}\,}}[\phi (K^*X^{-1}K)] \geqslant {{\,\textrm{Tr}\,}}[\phi (K)^*\phi (X)^{-1}\phi (K)]$$Tr[ϕ(KX-1K)]Tr[ϕ(K)ϕ(X)-1ϕ(K)]holds for a wider class of positive maps that is specified here. We also comment on the connections of this inequality with various monotonicity statements that have found wide use in mathematical physics, and apply it, and a close relative, to obtain some new, definitive results.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    It has been recently established in David and Mayboroda (Approximation of green functions and domains with uniformly rectifiable boundaries of all dimensions.arXiv:2010.09793) that on uniformly rectifiable sets the Green function is almost affine in the weak sense, and moreover, in some scenarios such Green function estimates are equivalent to the uniform rectifiability of a set. The present paper tackles a strong analogue of these results, starting with the “flagship degenerate operators on sets with lower dimensional boundaries. We consider the elliptic operators$$L_{\beta ,\gamma } =- {\text {div}}D^{d+1+\gamma -n} \nabla $$Lβ,γ=-divDd+1+γ-nassociated to a domain$$\Omega \subset {\mathbb {R}}^n$$ΩRnwith a uniformly rectifiable boundary$$\Gamma $$Γof dimension$$d < n-1$$d<n-1, the now usual distance to the boundary$$D = D_\beta $$D=Dβgiven by$$D_\beta (X)^{-\beta } = \int _{\Gamma } |X-y|^{-d-\beta } d\sigma (y)$$Dβ(X)-β=Γ|X-y|-d-βdσ(y)for$$X \in \Omega $$XΩ, where$$\beta >0$$β>0and$$\gamma \in (-1,1)$$γ(-1,1). In this paper we show that the Green functionGfor$$L_{\beta ,\gamma }$$Lβ,γ, with pole at infinity, is well approximated by multiples of$$D^{1-\gamma }$$D1-γ, in the sense that the function$$\big | D\nabla \big (\ln \big ( \frac{G}{D^{1-\gamma }} \big )\big )\big |^2$$|D(ln(GD1-γ))|2satisfies a Carleson measure estimate on$$\Omega $$Ω. We underline that the strong and the weak results are different in nature and, of course, at the level of the proofs: the latter extensively used compactness arguments, while the present paper relies on some intricate integration by parts and the properties of the “magical distance function from David et al. (Duke Math J, to appear).

    more » « less