skip to main content

Title: Crystal and molecular structure of 4-fluoro-1 H -pyrazole at 150 K

Only two 4-halo-1H-pyrazole crystal structures are known to date (chloro and bromo, the structure of 4-iodo-1H-pyrazole has not been reported yet). The triclinic structure of 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole, C3H3FN2(P\overline{1}), reported here is not isomorphous with those of the chloro and bromo analogues (which are isomorphous, orthorhombicPnma). To avoid sublimation during the measurement, diffraction data were collected at 150 K. Two crystallographically unique 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole moieties linked by an N—H...N hydrogen bond are found in the asymmetric unit. Unlike the trimeric supramolecular motifs found in the structures of the chloro and bromo analogues, 4-fluoro-1H-pyrazole forms one-dimensional chains by intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the crystal.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
International Union of Crystallography
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Acta Crystallographica Section E Crystallographic Communications
Page Range / eLocation ID:
428 to 431
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The crystal structures of three β-halolactic acids have been determined, namely, β-chlorolactic acid (systematic name: 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanoic acid, C 3 H 5 ClO 3 ) (I), β-bromolactic acid (systematic name: 3-bromo-2-hydroxypropanoic acid, C 3 H 5 BrO 3 ) (II), and β-iodolactic acid (systematic name: 2-hydroxy-3-iodopropanoic acid, C 3 H 5 IO 3 ) (III). The number of molecules in the asymmetric unit of each crystal structure ( Z ′) was found to be two for I and II, and one for III, making I and II isostructural and III unique. The difference between the molecules in the asymmetric units of I and II is due to the direction of the hydrogen bond of the alcohol group to a neighboring molecule. Molecular packing shows that each structure has alternating layers of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and halogen–halogen interactions. Hirshfeld surfaces and two-dimensional fingerprint plots were analyzed to further explore the intermolecular interactions of these structures. In I and II, energy minimization is achieved by lowering of the symmetry to adopt two independent molecular conformations in the asymmetric unit. 
    more » « less
  2. The amide bond represents one of the most fundamental functional groups in chemistry. The properties of amides are defined by amidic resonance (n N →π* C=O conjugation), which enforces planarity of the six atoms comprising the amide bond. Despite the importance of 4-halo-substituted benzamides in organic synthesis, molecular interactions and medicinal chemistry, the effect of 4-halo-substitution on the properties of the amide bond in N , N -disubstituted benzamides has not been studied. Herein, we report the crystal structures and energetic properties of a full series of 4-halobenzamides. The structures of four 4-halobenzamides (halo = iodo, bromo, chloro and fluoro) in the N -morpholinyl series have been determined, namely 4-[(4-halophenyl)carbonyl]morpholine, C 11 H 12 X NO 2 , for halo = iodo ( X = I), bromo ( X = Br), chloro ( X = Cl) and fluoro ( X = F). Computations have been used to determine the effect of halogen substitution on the structures and resonance energies. 4-Iodo- N -morpholinylbenzamide crystallized with a significant distortion of the amide bond (τ + χ N = 33°). The present study supports the correlation between the Ar—C(O) axis twist angle and the twist angle of the amide N—C(O) bond. Comparison of resonance energies in synthetically valuable N -morpholinyl and N -piperidinyl amides demonstrates that the O atom of the morpholinyl ring has a negligible effect on amidic resonance in the series. 
    more » « less
  3. Selective binding and transport of highly hydrophilic anions is ubiquitous in nature, as anion binding proteins can differentiate between similar anions with over a million-fold efficiency. While comparable selectivity has occasionally been achieved for certain anions using small, artificial receptors, the selective binding of certain anions, such as sulfate in the presence of carbonate, remains a very challenging task. Nanojars of the formula [anion⊂{Cu(OH)(pz)} n ] 2− (pz = pyrazolate; n = 27–33) are totally selective for either CO 3 2− or SO 4 2− over anions such as NO 3 − , ClO 4 − , BF 4 − , Cl − , Br − and I − , but cannot differentiate between the two. We hypothesized that rigidification of the nanojar outer shell by tethering pairs of pyrazole moieties together will restrict the possible orientations of the OH hydrogen-bond donor groups in the anion-binding cavity of nanojars, similarly to anion-binding proteins, and will lead to selectivity. Indeed, by using either homoleptic or heteroleptic nanojars of the general formula [anion⊂Cu n (OH) n (L2–L6) y (pz) n −2 y ] 2− ( n = 26–31) based on a series of homologous ligands HpzCH 2 (CH 2 ) x CH 2 pzH ( x = 0–4; H 2 L2–H 2 L6), selectivity for carbonate (with L2 and with L4–L6/pz mixtures) or for sulfate (with L3) has been achieved. The synthesis of new ligands H 2 L3, H 2 L4 and H 2 L5, X-ray crystal structures of H 2 L4 and the tetrahydropyranyl-protected derivatives (THP) 2 L4 and (THP) 2 L5, synthesis and characterization by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of carbonate- and sulfate-nanojars derived from ligands H 2 L2–H 2 L6, as well as detailed selectivity studies for CO 3 2− vs. SO 4 2− using these novel nanojars are presented. 
    more » « less
  4. The rapid evaporation of 1:1 solutions of diethynylpyridines and N -halosuccinimides, that react together to form haloalkynes, led to the isolation of unreacted 1:1 cocrystals of the two components. The 1:1 cocrystal formed between 2,6-diethynylpyridine and N -iodosuccinimide (C 4 H 4 INO 2 ·C 9 H 5 N) contains an N -iodosuccinimide–pyridine I...N halogen bond and two terminal alkyne–succinimide carbonyl C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional extended structure features interwoven double-stranded supramolecular polymers that are interconnected through halogen bonds. The cocrystal formed between 3,5-diethynylpyridine and N -iodosuccinimide (C 4 H 4 INO 2 ·C 9 H 5 N) also features an I...N halogen bond and two C—H...O hydrogen bonds. However, the components form essentially planar double-stranded one-dimensional zigzag supramolecular polymers. The cocrystal formed between 3,5-diethynylpyridine and N -bromosuccinimide (C 4 H 4 BrNO 2 ·C 9 H 5 N) is isomorphous to the cocrystal formed between 3,5-diethynylpyridine and N -iodosuccinimide, with a Br...N halogen bond instead of an I...N halogen bond. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    ipso‐Arylative ring‐opening polymerization of 2‐bromo‐8‐aryl‐8H‐indeno[2,1‐b]thiophen‐8‐ol monomers proceeds to Mnup to 9 kg mol−1with conversion of the monomer diarylcarbinol groups to pendent conjugated aroylphenyl side chains (2‐benzoylphenyl or 2‐(4‐hexylbenzoyl)phenyl), which influence the optical and electronic properties of the resulting polythiophenes. Poly(3‐(2‐(4‐hexylbenzoyl)phenyl)thiophene) was found to have lower frontier orbital energy levels (HOMO/LUMO=−5.9/−4.0 eV) than poly(3‐hexylthiophene) owing to the electron‐withdrawing ability of the aryl ketone side chains. The electron mobility (ca. 2×10−3 cm2 V−1 s−1) for poly(3‐(2‐(4‐hexylbenzoyl)phenyl)thiophene) was found to be significantly higher than the hole mobility (ca. 8×10−6 cm2 V−1 s−1), which suggests such polymers are candidates for n‐type organic semiconductors. Density functional theory calculations suggest that backbone distortion resulting from side‐chain steric interactions could be a key factor influencing charge mobilities.

    more » « less