skip to main content


Title: An Aligned Orbit for the Young Planet V1298 Tau b
Abstract

The alignment of planetary orbits with respect to the stellar rotation preserves information on their dynamical histories. Measuring this angle for young planets helps illuminate the mechanisms that create misaligned orbits for older planets, as different processes could operate over timescales ranging from a few megayears to a gigayear. We present spectroscopic transit observations of the young exoplanet V1298 Tau b; we update the age of V1298 Tau to be 28 ± 4 Myr based on Gaia EDR3 measurements. We observed a partial transit with Keck/HIRES and LBT/PEPSI, and detected the radial velocity anomaly due to the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect. V1298 Tau b has a prograde, well-aligned orbit, withλ=410+7deg. By combining the spectroscopically measuredvsiniand the photometrically measured rotation period of the host star we also find that the orbit is aligned in 3D,ψ=87+4deg. Finally, we combine our obliquity constraints with a previous measurement for the interior planet V1298 Tau c to constrain the mutual inclination between the two planets to beimut= 0° ± 19°. This measurements adds to the growing number of well-aligned planets at young ages, hinting that misalignments may be generated over timescales of longer than tens of megayears. The number of measurements, however, is still small, and this population may not be representative of the older planets that have been observed to date. We also present the derivation of the relationship betweenimut,λ, andifor the two planets.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10485125
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astronomical Journal
Volume:
163
Issue:
6
ISSN:
0004-6256
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: Article No. 247
Size(s):
["Article No. 247"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We present the direct-imaging discovery of a giant planet orbiting the young star AF Lep, a 1.2Mmember of the 24 ± 3 MyrβPic moving group. AF Lep was observed as part of our ongoing high-contrast imaging program targeting stars with astrometric accelerations between Hipparcos and Gaia that indicate the presence of substellar companions. Keck/NIRC2 observations inLwith the vector vortex coronagraph reveal a point source, AF Lep b, at ≈340 mas, which exhibits orbital motion at the 6σlevel over the course of 13 months. A joint orbit fit yields precise constraints on the planet’s dynamical mass of3.20.6+0.7MJup, semimajor axis of8.41.3+1.1au, and eccentricity of0.240.15+0.27. AF Lep hosts a debris disk located at ∼50 au, but it is unlikely to be sculpted by AF Lep b, implying there may be additional planets in the system at wider separations. The stellar inclination (i*=549+11°) and orbital inclination (io=5012+9°) are in good agreement, which is consistent with the system having spin–orbit alignment. AF Lep b is the lowest-mass imaged planet with a dynamical mass measurement and highlights the promise of using astrometric accelerations as a tool to find and characterize long-period planets.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    TOI-2076 b is a sub-Neptune-sized planet (R= 2.39 ± 0.10R) that transits a young (204 ± 50 MYr) bright (V= 9.2) K-dwarf hosting a system of three transiting planets. Using spectroscopic observations obtained with the NEID spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope, we model the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect of TOI-2076 b, and derive a sky-projected obliquity ofλ=315+16°. Using the size of the star (R= 0.775 ± 0.015R), and the stellar rotation period (Prot= 7.27 ± 0.23 days), we estimate an obliquity ofψ=189+10°(ψ< 34° at 95% confidence), demonstrating that TOI-2076 b is in a well-aligned orbit. Simultaneous diffuser-assisted photometry from the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory rules out flares during the transit. TOI-2076 b joins a small but growing sample of young planets in compact multi-planet systems with well-aligned orbits, and is the fourth planet with an age ≲300 Myr in a multi-transiting system with an obliquity measurement. The low obliquity of TOI-2076 b and the presence of transit timing variations in the system suggest the TOI-2076 system likely formed via convergent disk migration in an initially well-aligned disk.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Using the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer, we obtained high-resolution (R∼ 35,000)K-band spectra of the four planets orbiting HR 8799. We clearly detected H2O and CO in the atmospheres of HR 8799 c, d, and e, and tentatively detected a combination of CO and H2O in b. These are the most challenging directly imaged exoplanets that have been observed at high spectral resolution to date when considering both their angular separations and flux ratios. We developed a forward-modeling framework that allows us to jointly fit the spectra of the planets and the diffracted starlight simultaneously in a likelihood-based approach and obtained posterior probabilities on their effective temperatures, surface gravities, radial velocities, and spins. We measuredvsin(i)values of10.12.7+2.8kms1for HR 8799 d and15.02.6+2.3kms1for HR 8799 e, and placed an upper limit of <14 km s−1of HR 8799 c. Under two different assumptions of their obliquities, we found tentative evidence that rotation velocity is anticorrelated with companion mass, which could indicate that magnetic braking with a circumplanetary disk at early times is less efficient at spinning down lower-mass planets.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The early K-type T-Tauri star, V1298 Tau (V= 10 mag, age ≈ 20–30 Myr) hosts four transiting planets with radii ranging from 4.9 to 9.6R. The three inner planets have orbital periods of ≈8–24 days while the outer planet’s period is poorly constrained by single transits observed with K2 and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Planets b, c, and d are proto–sub-Neptunes that may be undergoing significant mass loss. Depending on the stellar activity and planet masses, they are expected to evolve into super-Earths/sub-Neptunes that bound the radius valley. Here we present results of a joint transit and radial velocity (RV) modeling analysis, which includes recently obtained TESS photometry and MAROON-X RV measurements. Assuming circular orbits, we obtain a low-significance (≈2σ) RV detection of planet c, implying a mass of19.88.9+9.3Mand a conservative 2σupper limit of <39M. For planets b and d, we derive 2σupper limits ofMb< 159MandMd< 41M, respectively. For planet e, plausible discrete periods ofPe> 55.4 days are ruled out at the 3σlevel while seven solutions with 43.3 <Pe/d< 55.4 are consistent with the most probable 46.768131 ± 000076 days solution within 3σ. Adopting the most probable solution yields a 2.6σRV detection with a mass of 0.66 ± 0.26MJup. Comparing the updated mass and radius constraints with planetary evolution and interior structure models shows that planets b, d, and e are consistent with predictions for young gas-rich planets and that planet c is consistent with having a water-rich core with a substantial (∼5% by mass) H2envelope.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We report the discovery and confirmation of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) single-transit, warm and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b. This planet is unusually dense for its size: with a bulk density of 2.13 g cm−3(0.645RJ, 0.463MJ), it is the densest warm sub-Saturn of the TESS family. It orbits a metal-rich G2 star. We also found evidence of a second planet, TIC 139270665 c, with a longer period of1010220+780days and minimum massMPsiniof4.890.37+0.66MJ. First clues of TIC 139270665 b’s existence were found by citizen scientists inspecting TESS photometric data from sector 47 in 2022 January. Radial velocity measurements from the Automated Planet Finder combined with TESS photometry and spectral energy distributions viaEXOFASTv2system modeling suggested a23.6240.031+0.030day orbital period for TIC 139270665 b and also showed evidence for the second planet. Based on this estimated period, we mobilized the Unistellar citizen science network for photometric follow-up, capitalizing on their global distribution to capture a second transit of TIC 139270665 b. This citizen science effort also served as a test bed for an education initiative that integrates young students into modern astrophysics data collection. The Unistellar photometry did not definitively detect a second transit, but did enable us to further constrain the planet’s period. As a transiting, warm, and dense sub-Saturn, TIC 139270665 b represents an interesting laboratory for further study to enhance our models of planetary formation and evolution.

     
    more » « less