skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on September 21, 2024

Title: ShiftAddViT: Mixture of Multiplication Primitives Towards Efficient Vision Transformer
Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown impressive performance and have become a unified backbone for multiple vision tasks. However, both the attention mechanism and multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) in ViTs are not sufficiently efficient due to dense multiplications, leading to costly training and inference. To this end, we propose to reparameterize pre-trained ViTs with a mixture of multiplication primitives, e.g., bitwise shifts and additions, towards a new type of multiplication-reduced model, dubbed ShiftAddViT, which aims to achieve end-to-end inference speedups on GPUs without requiring training from scratch. Specifically, all MatMuls among queries, keys, and values are reparameterized using additive kernels, after mapping queries and keys to binary codes in Hamming space. The remaining MLPs or linear layers are then reparameterized with shift kernels. We utilize TVM to implement and optimize those customized kernels for practical hardware deployment on GPUs. We find that such a reparameterization on (quadratic or linear) attention maintains model accuracy, while inevitably leading to accuracy drops when being applied to MLPs. To marry the best of both worlds, we further propose a new mixture of experts (MoE) framework to reparameterize MLPs by taking multiplication or its primitives as experts, e.g., multiplication and shift, and designing a new latency-aware load-balancing loss. Such a loss helps to train a generic router for assigning a dynamic amount of input tokens to different experts according to their latency. In principle, the faster the experts run, the more input tokens they are assigned. Extensive experiments on various 2D/3D Transformer-based vision tasks consistently validate the effectiveness of our proposed ShiftAddViT, achieving up to 5.18x latency reductions on GPUs and 42.9% energy savings, while maintaining a comparable accuracy as original or efficient ViTs. Codes and models are available at https://github.com/GATECH-EIC/ShiftAddViT.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1937592
NSF-PAR ID:
10487908
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems
Date Published:
Journal Name:
NeurIPS 2023 Conference Proceedings
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
["Efficient Vision Transformer","Multiplication-reduced networks","Hardware acceleration"]
Format(s):
Medium: X
Location:
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have shown impressive per-formance but still require a high computation cost as compared to convolutional neural networks (CNNs), one rea-son is that ViTs' attention measures global similarities and thus has a quadratic complexity with the number of in-put tokens. Existing efficient ViTs adopt local attention or linear attention, which sacrifice ViTs' capabilities of capturing either global or local context. In this work, we ask an important research question: Can ViTs learn both global and local context while being more efficient during inference? To this end, we propose a framework called Castling- ViT, which trains ViTs using both linear-angular attention and masked softmax-based quadratic attention, but then switches to having only linear-angular attention during inference. Our Castling- ViT leverages angular ker-nels to measure the similarities between queries and keys via spectral angles. And we further simplify it with two techniques: (1) a novel linear-angular attention mechanism: we decompose the angular kernels into linear terms and high-order residuals, and only keep the linear terms; and (2) we adopt two parameterized modules to approximate high-order residuals: a depthwise convolution and an aux-iliary masked softmax attention to help learn global and lo-cal information, where the masks for softmax attention are regularized to gradually become zeros and thus incur no overhead during inference. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our Castling- ViT, e.g., achieving up to a 1.8% higher accuracy or 40% MACs reduction on classification and 1.2 higher mAP on detection under comparable FLOPs, as compared to ViTs with vanilla softmax-based at-tentions. Project page is available at here. 
    more » « less
  2. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance on various vision tasks. However, ViTs’ self-attention module is still arguably a major bottleneck, limiting their achievable hardware efficiency and more extensive applications to resource constrained platforms. Meanwhile, existing accelerators dedicated to NLP Transformers are not optimal for ViTs. This is because there is a large difference between ViTs and Transformers for natural language processing (NLP) tasks: ViTs have a relatively fixed number of input tokens, whose attention maps can be pruned by up to 90% even with fixed sparse patterns, without severely hurting the model accuracy (e.g., <=1.5% under 90% pruning ratio); while NLP Transformers need to handle input sequences of varying numbers of tokens and rely on on-the-fly predictions of dynamic sparse attention patterns for each input to achieve a decent sparsity (e.g., >=50%). To this end, we propose a dedicated algorithm and accelerator co-design framework dubbed ViTCoD for accelerating ViTs. Specifically, on the algorithm level, ViTCoD prunes and polarizes the attention maps to have either denser or sparser fixed patterns for regularizing two levels of workloads without hurting the accuracy, largely reducing the attention computations while leaving room for alleviating the remaining dominant data movements; on top of that, we further integrate a lightweight and learnable auto-encoder module to enable trading the dominant high-cost data movements for lower-cost computations. On the hardware level, we develop a dedicated accelerator to simultaneously coordinate the aforementioned enforced denser and sparser workloads for boosted hardware utilization, while integrating on-chip encoder and decoder engines to leverage ViTCoD’s algorithm pipeline for much reduced data movements. Extensive experiments and ablation studies validate that ViTCoD largely reduces the dominant data movement costs, achieving speedups of up to 235.3×, 142.9×, 86.0×, 10.1×, and 6.8× over general computing platforms CPUs, EdgeGPUs, GPUs, and prior-art Transformer accelerators SpAtten and Sanger under an attention sparsity of 90%, respectively. Our code implementation is available at https://github.com/GATECH-EIC/ViTCoD. 
    more » « less
  3. Vision Transformers (ViTs) are built on the assumption of treating image patches as “visual tokens” and learn patch-to-patch attention. The patch embedding based tokenizer has a semantic gap with respect to its counterpart, the textual tokenizer. The patch-to-patch attention suffers from the quadratic complexity issue, and also makes it non-trivial to explain learned ViTs. To address these issues in ViT, this paper proposes to learn Patch-to-Cluster attention (PaCa) in ViT. Queries in our PaCa-ViT starts with patches, while keys and values are directly based on clustering (with a predefined small number of clusters). The clusters are learned end-to-end, leading to better tokenizers and inducing joint clustering-for-attention and attention-for-clustering for better and interpretable models. The quadratic complexity is relaxed to linear complexity. The proposed PaCa module is used in designing efficient and interpretable ViT backbones and semantic segmentation head networks. In experiments, the proposed methods are tested on ImageNet-1k image classification, MS-COCO object detection and instance segmentation and MIT-ADE20k semantic segmentation. Compared with the prior art, it obtains better performance in all the three benchmarks than the SWin [32] and the PVTs [47], [48] by significant margins in ImageNet-1k and MIT-ADE20k. It is also significantly more efficient than PVT models in MS-COCO and MIT-ADE20k due to the linear complexity. The learned clusters are semantically meaningful. Code and model checkpoints are available at https:/github.com/iVMCL/PaCaViT. 
    more » « less
  4. Vision transformers (ViTs) have recently set off a new wave in neural architecture design thanks to their record-breaking performance in various vision tasks. In parallel, to fulfill the goal of deploying ViTs into real-world vision applications, their robustness against potential malicious attacks has gained increasing attention. In particular, recent works show that ViTs are more robust against adversarial attacks as compared with convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and conjecture that this is because ViTs focus more on capturing global interactions among different input/feature patches, leading to their improved robustness to local perturbations imposed by adversarial attacks. In this work, we ask an intriguing question: “Under what kinds of perturbations do ViTs become more vulnerable learners compared to CNNs?” Driven by this question, we first conduct a comprehensive experiment regarding the robustness of both ViTs and CNNs under various existing adversarial attacks to understand the underlying reason favoring their robustness. Based on the drawn insights, we then propose a dedicated attack framework, dubbed Patch-Fool, that fools the self-attention mechanism by attacking its basic component (i.e., a single patch) with a series of attention-aware optimization techniques. Interestingly, our Patch-Fool framework shows for the first time that ViTs are not necessarily more robust than CNNs against adversarial perturbations. In particular, we find that ViTs are more vulnerable learners compared with CNNs against our Patch-Fool attack which is consistent across extensive experiments, and the observations from Sparse/Mild Patch-Fool, two variants of Patch-Fool, indicate an intriguing insight that the perturbation density and strength on each patch seem to be the key factors that influence the robustness ranking between ViTs and CNNs. It can be expected that our Patch-Fool framework will shed light on both future architecture designs and training schemes for robustifying ViTs towards their real-world deployment. Our codes are available at https://github.com/RICE-EIC/Patch-Fool. 
    more » « less
  5. Vision transformers (ViTs) have recently obtained success in many applications, but their intensive computation and heavy memory usage at both training and inference time limit their generalization. Previous compression algorithms usually start from the pre-trained dense models and only focus on efficient inference, while time-consuming training is still unavoidable. In contrast, this paper points out that the million-scale training data is redundant, which is the fundamental reason for the tedious training. To address the issue, this paper aims to introduce sparsity into data and proposes an end-to-end efficient training framework from three sparse perspectives, dubbed Tri-Level E-ViT. Specifically, we leverage a hierarchical data redundancy reduction scheme, by exploring the sparsity under three levels: number of training examples in the dataset, number of patches (tokens) in each example, and number of connections between tokens that lie in attention weights. With extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed technique can noticeably accelerate training for various ViT architectures while maintaining accuracy. Remarkably, under certain ratios, we are able to improve the ViT accuracy rather than compromising it. For example, we can achieve 15.2% speedup with 72.6% (+0.4) Top-1 accuracy on Deit-T, and 15.7% speedup with 79.9% (+0.1) Top-1 accuracy on Deit-S. This proves the existence of data redundancy in ViT. Our code
is released at https://github.com/ZLKong/Tri-Level-ViT

     
    more » « less