skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on January 31, 2025

Title: Synthesis and Cluster Structure Distortions of Biscarborane Dithiol, Thioether, and Disulfide
The synthesis and structural characterization of the first sulfur-containing derivatives of C,C-biscarborane {ortho-C2B10}2 cluster – thiol, thioether, and disulfide- is reported. The biscarboranyl dithiol (1-HS-C2B10H10)2 exhibits the exceedingly long intracluster carbon-carbon bond length of 1.858(3) Å, which is attributed to the extensive interaction between lone pairs of thiol groups and the unoccupied molecular orbital of carborane cluster. The structures of doubly deprotonated biscarboranyl dithiolate anion (1-S-C2B10H10)22– with various countercations feature even longer carbon-carbon bond of 2.062(10) Å within the cluster along with the short carbon-sulfur bond of 1.660(7) Å, both indicative of significant delocalization of electron density from sulfur atoms into the cluster.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2154828
NSF-PAR ID:
10490729
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
ISSN:
1477-9226
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Unsupported non-bridged uranium–carbon double bonds have long been sought after in actinide chemistry as fundamental synthetic targets in the study of actinide-ligand multiple bonding. Here we report that, utilizingIh(7)-C80fullerenes as nanocontainers, a diuranium carbide cluster, U=C=U, has been encapsulated and stabilized in the form of UCU@Ih(7)-C80. This endohedral fullerene was prepared utilizing the Krätschmer–Huffman arc discharge method, and was then co-crystallized with nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (NiII-OEP) to produce UCU@Ih(7)-C80·[NiII-OEP] as single crystals. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a cage-stabilized, carbide-bridged, bent UCU cluster with unexpectedly short uranium–carbon distances (2.03 Å) indicative of covalent U=C double-bond character. The quantum-chemical results suggest that both U atoms in the UCU unit have formal oxidation state of +5. The structural features of UCU@Ih(7)-C80and the covalent nature of the U(f1)=C double bonds were further affirmed through various spectroscopic and theoretical analyses.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Exploration of the reduction chemistry of the 2,2’‐bipyridine (bipy) lanthanide metallocene complexes Cp*2LnCl(bipy) and Cp*2Ln(bipy) (Cp* = C5Me5) resulted in the isolation of a series of complexes with unusual composition and structure including complexes with a single Cp* ligand, multiple azide ligands, and bipy ligands with close parallel orientations. These results not only reveal new structural types, but they also show the diverse chemistry displayed by this redox‐active platform. Treatment of Cp*2NdCl(bipy) with excess KC8resulted in the formation of the mono‐Cp* Nd(III) complex, [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Nd(bipy)2],1, as well as [K(crypt)][Cp*2NdCl2],2, and the previously reported [K(crypt)][Cp*2Nd(bipy)]. A mono‐Cp* Lu(III) complex, Cp*Lu(bipy)2,3, was also found in an attempt to make Cp*2Lu(bipy) from LuCl3, 2 equiv. of KCp*, bipy, and K/KI. Surprisingly, the (bipy)1−ligands in neighboring molecules in the structure of3are oriented in a parallel fashion with intermolecular C⋅⋅⋅C distances of 3.289(4) Å, which are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii of two carbon atoms, 3.4 Å. Another product with one Cp* ligand per lanthanide was isolated from the reaction of [K(crypt)][Cp*2Eu(bipy)] with azobenzene, which afforded the dimeric Eu(II) complex, [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Eu(THF)(PhNNPh)]2,4. Attempts to make4from the reaction between Cp*2Eu(THF)2and a reduced azobenzene anion generated instead the mixed‐valent Eu(III)/Eu(II) complex, [K(crypt)][Cp*Eu(THF)(PhNNPh)]2,5, which allows direct comparison with the bimetallic Eu(II) complex4. Mono‐Cp* complexes of Yb(III) are obtained from reactions of the Yb(II) complex, [K(crypt)][Cp*2Yb(bipy)], with trimethylsilylazide, which afforded the tetra‐azido [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(N3)4],6, or the di‐azido complex [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(N3)2(bipy)],7 a, depending on the reaction stoichiometry. A mono‐Cp* Yb(III) complex is also isolated from reaction of [K(crypt)][Cp*2Yb(bipy)] with elemental sulfur which forms the mixed polysulfido Yb(III) complex [K(crypt)]2[Cp*Yb(S4)(S5)],8 a. In contrast to these reactions that form mono‐Cp* products, reduction of Cp*2Yb(bipy) with 1 equiv. of KC8in the presence of 18‐crown‐6 resulted in the complete loss of Cp* ligands and the formation of [K(18‐c‐6)(THF)][Yb(bipy)4],9. The (bipy)1−ligands of9are arranged in a parallel orientation, as observed in the structure of3, except in this case this interaction is intramolecular and involves pairs of ligands bound to the same Yb atom. Attempts to reduce further the Sm(II) (bipy)1−complex, Cp*2Sm(bipy) with 2 equiv. of KC8in the presence of excess 18‐crown‐6 led to the isolation of a Sm(III) salt of (bipy)2−with an inverse sandwich Cp* counter‐cation and a co‐crystallized K(18‐c‐6)Cp* unit, [K2(18‐c‐6)2Cp*]2[Cp*2Sm(bipy)]2 ⋅ [K(18‐c‐6)Cp*],10.

     
    more » « less
  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a detailed near-infrared chemical abundance analysis of 10 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 752. High-resolution (R ≃ 45000) near-infrared spectral data were gathered with the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, providing simultaneous coverage of the complete H and K bands. We derived the abundances of H-burning (C, N, O), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), light odd-Z (Na, Al, P, K), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni), and neutron-capture (Ce, Nd, Yb) elements. We report the abundances of S, P, K, Ce, and Yb in NGC 752 for the first time. Our analysis yields solar-metallicity and solar abundance ratios for almost all of the elements heavier than the CNO group in NGC 752. O and N abundances were measured from a number of OH and CN features in the H band, and C abundances were determined mainly from CO molecular lines in the K band. High-excitation $\rm{C\,\small {I}}$ lines present in both near-infrared and optical spectra were also included in the C abundance determinations. Carbon isotopic ratios were derived from the R-branch band heads of first overtone (2−0) and (3−1) 12CO and (2−0) 13CO lines near 23 440 Å and (3−1) 13CO lines at about 23 730 Å. The CNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios are all consistent with our giants having completed ‘first dredge-up’ envelope mixing of CN-cyle products. We independently assessed NGC 752 stellar membership from Gaia astrometry, leading to a new colour–magnitude diagram for this cluster. Applications of Victoria isochrones and MESA models to these data yield an updated NGC 752 cluster age (1.52 Gyr) and evolutionary stage indications for the programme stars. The photometric evidence and spectroscopic light element abundances all suggest that the most, perhaps all of the programme stars are members of the helium-burning red clump in this cluster.

     
    more » « less
  4. The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid), C 6 H 6 O 5 , which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intramolecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxopropanoic acid), C 3 H 4 O 3 , at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B 33 , 210–212]. In zymonic acid, the hydroxylactone ring is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0108 Å) and the dihedral angle between the ring and the plane formed by the bonds of the methyl and carboxylic acid carbon atoms to the ring is 88.68 (7)°. The torsion angle of the carboxylic acid group relative to the ring is 12.04 (16)°. The pyruvic acid molecule is almost planar, having a dihedral angle between the carboxylic acid and methyl-ketone groups of 3.95 (6)°. Intermolecular interactions in both crystal structures are dominated by hydrogen bonding. The common R 2 2 (8) hydrogen-bonding motif links carboxylic acid groups on adjacent molecules in both structures. In zymonic acid, this results in dimers about a crystallographic twofold of space group C 2/ c , which forces the carboxylic acid group to be disordered exactly 50:50, which scrambles the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and gives an apparent equalization of the C—O bond lengths [1.2568 (16) and 1.2602 (16) Å]. The other hydrogen bonds in zymonic acid (O—H...O and weak C—H...O), link molecules across a 2 1 -screw axis, and generate an R 2 2 (9) motif. These hydrogen-bonding interactions propagate to form extended pleated sheets in the ab plane. Stacking of these zigzag sheets along c involves only van der Waals contacts. In pyruvic acid, inversion-related molecules are linked into R 2 2 (8) dimers, with van der Waals interactions between dimers as the only other intermolecular contacts. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Ergothioneine, a natural longevity vitamin and antioxidant, is a thiol-histidine derivative. Recently, two types of biosynthetic pathways were reported. In the aerobic ergothioneine biosyntheses, non-heme iron enzymes incorporate a sulfoxide into an sp2 C–H bond from trimethyl-histidine (hercynine) through oxidation reactions. In contrast, in the anaerobic ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway in a green-sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola, a rhodanese domain containing protein (EanB), directly replaces this unreactive hercynine C–H bond with a C–S bond. Herein, we demonstrate that polysulfide (HSSnSR) is the direct sulfur source in EanB catalysis. After identifying EanB’s substrates, X-ray crystallography of several intermediate states along with mass spectrometry results provide additional mechanistic details for this reaction. Further, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations reveal that the protonation of Nπ of hercynine by Tyr353 with the assistance of Thr414 is a key activation step for the hercynine sp2 C–H bond in this trans-sulfuration reaction. 
    more » « less