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Title: Label free identification of different cancer cells using deep learning-based image analysis

Cancer diagnostics is an important field of cancer recovery and survival with many expensive procedures needed to administer the correct treatment. Machine Learning (ML) approaches can help with the diagnostic prediction from circulating tumor cells in liquid biopsy or from a primary tumor in solid biopsy. After predicting the metastatic potential from a deep learning model, doctors in a clinical setting can administer a safe and correct treatment for a specific patient. This paper investigates the use of deep convolutional neural networks for predicting a specific cancer cell line as a tool for label free identification. Specifically, deep learning strategies for weight initialization and performance metrics are described, with transfer learning and the accuracy metric utilized in this work. The equipment used for prediction involves brightfield microscopy without the use of chemical labels, advanced instruments, or time-consuming biological techniques, giving an advantage over current diagnostic methods. In the procedure, three different binary datasets of well-known cancer cell lines were collected, each having a difference in metastatic potential. Two different classification models were adopted (EfficientNetV2 and ResNet-50) with the analysis given for each stage in the ML architecture. The training results for each model and dataset are provided and systematically compared. We found that the test set accuracy showed favorable performance for both ML models with EfficientNetV2 accuracy reaching up to 99%. These test results allowed EfficientNetV2 to outperform ResNet-50 at an average percent increase of 3.5% for each dataset. The high accuracy obtained from the predictions demonstrates that the system can be retrained on a large-scale clinical dataset.

 
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Award ID(s):
1935792
NSF-PAR ID:
10491094
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
AIP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
APL Machine Learning
Volume:
1
Issue:
2
ISSN:
2770-9019
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Results

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    Availability and implementation

    The codes, the documentation and example data are available on an open source at: https://github.com/jkonglab/PCR_Prediction_Serial_WSIs_biomarkers

    Supplementary information

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  4. Obeid, I. (Ed.)
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The breast corpus subset should be released by November 2021. By December 2021 we should also release the unannotated FCCC data. We are currently annotating urinary tract data as well. We expect to release about 5,600 processed TUH slides in this subset. We have an additional 53,000 unprocessed TUH slides digitized. Corpora of this size will stimulate the development of a new generation of deep learning technology. In clinical settings where resources are limited, an assistive diagnoses model could support pathologists’ workload and even help prioritize suspected cancerous cases. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. CNS-1726188 and 1925494. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. REFERENCES [1] N. Shawki et al., “The Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York City, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 67 104. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030368432. [2] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning.” Major Research Instrumentation (MRI), Division of Computer and Network Systems, Award No. 1726188, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2021. https://www. isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_dpath/. [3] A. Gulati et al., “Conformer: Convolution-augmented Transformer for Speech Recognition,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH), 2020, pp. 5036-5040. https://doi.org/10.21437/interspeech.2020-3015. [4] C.-J. Wu et al., “Machine Learning at Facebook: Understanding Inference at the Edge,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2019, pp. 331–344. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8675201. [5] I. Caswell and B. Liang, “Recent Advances in Google Translate,” Google AI Blog: The latest from Google Research, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://ai.googleblog.com/2020/06/recent-advances-in-google-translate.html. [Accessed: 01-Aug-2021]. [6] V. Khalkhali, N. Shawki, V. Shah, M. Golmohammadi, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Low Latency Real-Time Seizure Detection Using Transfer Deep Learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2021, pp. 1 7. https://www.isip. piconepress.com/publications/conference_proceedings/2021/ieee_spmb/eeg_transfer_learning/. [7] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2020. https://www.isip.piconepress.com/publications/reports/2020/nsf/mri_dpath/. [8] I. Hunt, S. Husain, J. Simons, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Recent Advances in the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2019, pp. 1–4. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9037859. [9] A. P. Martinez, C. Cohen, K. Z. Hanley, and X. (Bill) Li, “Estrogen Receptor and Cytokeratin 5 Are Reliable Markers to Separate Usual Ductal Hyperplasia From Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 686–689, Apr. 2016. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2015-0238-OA. 
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