skip to main content

Title: The VLBA CANDELS GOODS-North Survey. II – Wide-field source catalogue comparison between the VLBA, EVN, e -MERLIN, and VLA

Deep radio surveys of extragalactic legacy fields trace a large range of spatial and brightness temperature sensitivity scales, and therefore have differing biases to radio-emitting physical components within galaxies. This is particularly true of radio surveys performed at $\lesssim 1 \ \mathrm{arcsec}$ angular resolutions, and so robust comparisons are necessary to better understand the biases present in each survey. We present a multiresolution and multiwavelength analysis of the sources detected in a new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For the 24 VLBA-selected sources described in Paper I, we augment the VLBA data with EVN data, and ∼0.1–1 arcsec angular resolution data provided by Very Large Array (VLA) and enhanced-Multi Element Remotely Linked Interferometry Network. This sample includes new active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in this field, thanks to a new source extraction technique that adopts priors from ancillary multiwavelength data. The high brightness temperatures of these sources (TB ≳ 106 K) confirm AGN cores, that would often be missed or ambiguous in lower-resolution radio data of the same sources. Furthermore, only 15 sources are identified as ‘radiative’ AGN based on available X-ray and infrared constraints. By combining VLA and VLBA measurements, we find evidence that the majority of the extended radio emission is also AGN dominated, with only three sources with evidence for extended potentially star formation-dominated radio emission. We demonstrate the importance of wide-field multiresolution (arcsecond–milliarcsecond) coverage of the faint radio source population, for a complete picture of the multiscale processes within these galaxies.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Medium: X Size: p. 6141-6158
p. 6141-6158
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    The advent of new all-sky radio surveys such as the VLA Sky Survey and the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey, performed with the latest generation radio telescopes, is opening new possibilities on the classification and study of extragalactic γ-ray sources, specially the underrepresented ones like radio galaxies. In particular, the enhanced sensitivity (sub-mJy level) and resolution (a few arcsec) provides a better morphological and spectral classification. In this work, we present the reclassification of a Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) source as a new Fanaroff–Riley II radio galaxy from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory sample found to emit at GeV energies. Through a broad-band spectral fitting from radio to γ-ray, we find that the commonly invoked jet contribution is not sufficient to account for the observed γ-ray flux. Our modelling suggests that the observed emission could mainly originate in the lobes (rather than in the radio core) by inverse Compton scattering of radio-emitting electrons off the ambient photon fields. In addition, we cross-correlated the latest generation radio surveys with a list of Fermi/LAT candidate misaligned AGN from the literature, finding four new radio galaxies with a double-lobed morphology. Additional four objects could be classified as such thanks to previous studies in the literature, for a total of nine new radio galaxies with GeV emission presented in this work. We foresee that further objects of this class might be found in the near future with the advent of the Square Kilometer Array, populating the GeV sky.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract Although it is well established that some extragalactic radio sources are time-variable, the properties of this radio variability, and its connection with host galaxy properties, remain to be explored—particularly for faint sources. Here we present an analysis of radio variable sources from the CHILES Variable and Explosive Radio Dynamic Evolution Survey (CHILES VERDES)—a partner project of the 1.4 GHz COSMOS H i Large Extragalactic Survey. CHILES VERDES provides an unprecedented combination of survey depth, duration, and cadence, with 960 hr of 1–2 GHz continuum VLA data obtained over 209 epochs between 2013 and 2019 in a 0.44 deg 2 section of the well-studied extragalactic deep field, COSMOS. We identified 18 moderate-variability sources (showing 10%–30% flux density variation) and 40 lower-variability sources (2%–10% flux density variation). They are mainly active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with radio luminosities in the range of 10 22 –10 27 W Hz −1 , based on cross-matching with COSMOS multiwavelength catalogs. The moderate-variability sources span redshifts z = 0.22–1.56, have mostly flat radio spectra ( α > −0.5), and vary on timescales ranging from days to years. The lower-variability sources have similar properties, but generally have higher radio luminosities than the moderate-variability sources, extending to z = 2.8, and have steeper radio spectra ( α < −0.5). No star-forming galaxy showed statistically significant variability in our analysis. The observed variability likely originates from scintillation on short (∼week) timescales, and Doppler-boosted intrinsic AGN variability on long (month–year) timescales. 
    more » « less

    The Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) and the VLA survey in the XMM-LSS/VIDEO deep field provide deep (≈15 $\mu$ Jy beam−1) and high-resolution (≈4.5–8 arcsec) radio coverage of the three XMM-SERVS fields (W-CDF-S, ELAIS-S1, and XMM-LSS). These data cover a total sky area of 11.3 deg2 and contain ≈11 000 radio components. Furthermore, about 3 deg2 of the XMM-LSS field also has deeper MIGHTEE data that achieve a median RMS of 5.6 $\mu$ Jy beam−1 and detect more than 20 000 radio sources. We analyse all these radio data and find source counterparts at other wavebands utilizing deep optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The nature of these radio sources is studied using radio-band properties (spectral slope and morphology) and the IR–radio correlation. Radio AGNs are selected and compared with those selected using other methods (e.g. X-ray). We found 1656 new AGNs that were not selected using X-ray and/or MIR methods. We constrain the FIR-to-UV SEDs of radio AGNs using cigale and investigate the dependence of radio AGN fraction upon galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract Modern and future surveys effectively provide a panchromatic view for large numbers of extragalactic objects. Consistently modeling these multiwavelength survey data is a critical but challenging task for extragalactic studies. The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission ( cigale ) is an efficient python code for spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Recently, a major extension of cigale (named x-cigale ) has been developed to account for AGN/galaxy X-ray emission and improve AGN modeling at UV-to-IR wavelengths. Here, we apply x-cigale to different samples, including Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) spectroscopic type 2 AGNs, Chandra Deep Field-South X-ray detected normal galaxies, Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars, and COSMOS radio objects. From these tests, we identify several weaknesses of x-cigale and improve the code accordingly. These improvements are mainly related to AGN intrinsic X-ray anisotropy, X-ray binary emission, AGN accretion-disk SED shape, and AGN radio emission. These updates improve the fit quality and allow for new interpretation of the results, based on which we discuss physical implications. For example, we find that AGN intrinsic X-ray anisotropy is moderate, and can be modeled as L X ( θ ) ∝ 1 + cos θ , where θ is the viewing angle measured from the AGN axis. We merge the new code into the major branch of cigale , and publicly release this new version as cigale v2022.0 on . 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract We present the HI-MaNGA programme of HI follow-up for the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. MaNGA, which is part of the Fourth phase of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (SDSS-IV), is in the process of obtaining integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy for a sample of ∼10, 000 nearby galaxies. We give an overview of the HI 21cm radio follow-up observing plans and progress and present data for the first 331 galaxies observed in the 2016 observing season at the Robert C. Bryd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We also provide a cross match of the current MaNGA (DR15) sample with publicly available HI data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey. The addition of HI data to the MaNGA data set will strengthen the survey’s ability to address several of its key science goals that relate to the gas content of galaxies, while also increasing the legacy of this survey for all extragalactic science. 
    more » « less