skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on March 19, 2025

Title: Automated brightfield layerwise evaluation in three-dimensional micropatterning via two-photon polymerization

Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is an advanced 3D fabrication technique capable of creating features with submicron precision. A primary challenge in TPP lies in the facile and accurate characterization of fabrication quality, particularly for structures possessing complex internal features. In this study, we introduce an automated brightfield layerwise evaluation technique that enables a simple-to-implement approach forin situmonitoring and quality assessment of TPP-fabricated structures. Our approach relies on sequentially acquired brightfield images during the TPP writing process and using background subtraction and image processing to extract layered spatial features. We experimentally validate our method by printing a fibrous tissue scaffold and successfully achieve an overall system-adjusted fidelity of 87.5%in situ. Our method is readily adaptable in most TPP systems and can potentially facilitate high-quality TPP manufacturing of sophisticated microstructures.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2043168
NSF-PAR ID:
10505981
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Optica Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Volume:
32
Issue:
7
ISSN:
1094-4087
Page Range / eLocation ID:
12508
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. LED array microscopy is an emerging platform for computational imaging with significant utility for biological imaging. Existing LED array systems often exploit transmission imaging geometries of standard brightfield microscopes that leave the rich backscattered field undetected. This backscattered signal contains high-resolution sample information with superb sensitivity to subtle structural features that make it ideal for biological sensing and detection. Here, we develop an LED array reflectance microscope capturing the sample’s backscattered signal. In particular, we demonstrate multimodal brightfield, darkfield, and differential phase contrast imaging on fixed and living biological specimens includingCaenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), zebrafish embryos, and live cell cultures. Video-rate multimodal imaging at 20 Hz records real time features of freely movingC. elegansand the fast beating heart of zebrafish embryos. Our new reflectance mode is a valuable addition to the LED array microscopic toolbox.

     
    more » « less
  2. Freeform Fresnel optics represent an emerging category of modern optics that reproduces powerful optical functionalities while maintaining an ultra-compact volume. The existing ultra-precision machining (UPM) technique faces technical challenges in meeting the fabrication requirements for freeform Fresnel optics because of the absence of appropriate geometry definition and corresponding tool path planning strategy to overcome the extreme asymmetry and discontinuity. This study proposes a new scheme for ultra-precision machining using four axes (X,Y,Z,C) to fabricate freeform Fresnel optics, including a general geometry description for freeform Fresnel optics, the quasi-spiral tool path generation strategy to overcome the lack of rotary symmetry, and the adaptive tool pose manipulation method for avoiding tool interference. In addition, the tool edge compensation and the adaptive timestep determination are also introduced to enhance the performance and efficiency of the proposed scheme. The machining of two exemplary freeform Fresnel lenses is successfully demonstrated. Overall, this study introduces a comprehensive routine for the fabrication of freeform Fresnel optics and proposes the adaptive tool pose manipulation scheme, which has the potential for broader applications in the ultra-precision machining of complex or discontinuous surfaces.

     
    more » « less
  3. Annealing of amorphous optical coatings has been shown to generally reduce optical absorption, optical scattering, and mechanical loss, with higher temperature annealing giving better results. The achievable maximum temperatures are limited to the levels at which coating damage, such as crystallization, cracking, or bubbling, will occur. Coating damage caused by heating is typically only observed statically after annealing. An experimental method to dynamically observe how and over what temperature range such damage occurs during annealing is desirable as its results could inform manufacturing and annealing processes to ultimately achieve better coating performance. We developed a new, to the best of our knowledge, instrument that features an industrial annealing oven with holes cut into its sides for viewports to illuminate optical samples and observe their coating scatter and eventual damage mechanismsin situand in real time during annealing. We present results that demonstratein situobservation of changes to titania-doped tantala coatings on fused silica substrates. We obtain a spatial image (mapping) of the evolution of these changes during annealing, an advantage over x ray diffraction, electron beam, or Raman methods. We infer, based on other experiments in the literature, these changes to be due to crystallization. We further discuss the utility of this apparatus for observing other forms of coating damage such as cracking and blisters.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Additive manufacturing with two‐photon polymerization (TPP) has opened new opportunities for the rapid fabrication of 3D structures with sub‐micrometer resolution, but there are still many fabrication constraints associated with this technique. This study details a postprocessing method utilizing oxygen‐plasma etching to increase the capabilities of TPP. Underutilized precision in the typical fabrication process allows this subtractive technique to dramatically reduce the minimum achievable feature size. Moreover, since the postprocessing occurs in a dry environment, high aspect ratio features that cannot survive the typical fabrication route can also be achieved. Finally, it is shown that the technique also provides a pathway to realize structures that otherwise are too delicate to be fabricated with TPP, as it enables to introduce temporary support material that can be removed with the plasma. As such, the proposed approach grants access to a massively expanded design domain, providing new capabilities that are long sought in many fields, including optics, biology, robotics, and solid mechanics.

     
    more » « less
  5. Fourier ptychographic microscopy is a computational imaging technique that provides quantitative phase information and high resolution over a large field-of-view. Although the technique presents numerous advantages over conventional microscopy, model mismatch due to unknown optical aberrations can significantly limit reconstruction quality. A practical way of correcting for aberrations without additional data capture is through algorithmic self-calibration, in which a pupil recovery step is embedded into the reconstruction algorithm. However, software-only aberration correction is limited in accuracy. Here, we evaluate the merits of implementing a simple, dedicated calibration procedure for applications requiring high accuracy. In simulations, we find that for a target sample reconstruction error, we can image without any aberration corrections only up to a maximum aberration magnitude ofλ/40. When we use algorithmic self-calibration, we can tolerate an aberration magnitude up toλ/10 and with our proposed diffuser calibration technique, this working range is extended further toλ/3. Hence, one can trade off complexity for accuracy by using a separate calibration process, which is particularly useful for larger aberrations.

     
    more » « less