%ALahn, Nathaniel%ARaghvendra, Sharath%Anull Ed.%BJournal Name: Proceedings of the Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
%D2021%I
%JJournal Name: Proceedings of the Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
%K
%MOSTI ID: 10232551
%PMedium: X; Size: 869 - 888
%TAn O(n5/4) Time ∊-Approximation Algorithm for RMS Matching in a Plane
%XThe 2-Wasserstein distance (or RMS distance) is a useful measure of similarity between probability distributions with exciting applications in machine learning. For discrete distributions, the problem of computing this distance can be expressed in terms of finding a minimum-cost perfect matching on a complete bipartite graph given by two multisets of points A, B ⊂ ℝ2, with |A| = |B| = n, where the ground distance between any two points is the squared Euclidean distance between them. Although there is a near-linear time relative ∊-approximation algorithm for the case where the ground distance is Euclidean (Sharathkumar and Agarwal, JACM 2020), all existing relative ∊-approximation algorithms for the RMS distance take Ω(n3/2) time. This is primarily because, unlike Euclidean distance, squared Euclidean distance is not a metric. In this paper, for the RMS distance, we present a new ∊-approximation algorithm that runs in O(n^5/4 poly{log n, 1/∊}) time. Our algorithm is inspired by a recent approach for finding a minimum-cost perfect matching in bipartite planar graphs (Asathulla et al, TALG 2020). Their algorithm depends heavily on the existence of sublinear sized vertex separators as well as shortest path data structures that require planarity. Surprisingly, we are able to design a similar algorithm for a complete geometric graph that is far from planar and does not have any vertex separators. Central components of our algorithm include a quadtree-based distance that approximates the squared Euclidean distance and a data structure that supports both Hungarian search and augmentation in sublinear time.
%0Journal Article