The case-cohort design is a commonly used cost-effective sampling strategy for large cohort studies, where some covariates are expensive to measure or obtain. In this paper, we consider regression analysis under a case-cohort study with interval-censored failure time data, where the failure time is only known to fall within an interval instead of being exactly observed. A common approach to analyzing data from a case-cohort study is the inverse probability weighting approach, where only subjects in the case-cohort sample are used in estimation, and the subjects are weighted based on the probability of inclusion into the case-cohort sample. This approach, though consistent, is generally inefficient as it does not incorporate information outside the case-cohort sample. To improve efficiency, we first develop a sieve maximum weighted likelihood estimator under the Cox model based on the case-cohort sample and then propose a procedure to update this estimator by using information in the full cohort. We show that the update estimator is consistent, asymptotically normal, and at least as efficient as the original estimator. The proposed method can flexibly incorporate auxiliary variables to improve estimation efficiency. A weighted bootstrap procedure is employed for variance estimation. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method works well in practical situations. An application to a Phase 3 HIV vaccine efficacy trial is provided for illustration.

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