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  1. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been successful in many tasks in machine vision, however, millions of weights in the form of thousands of convolutional filters in CNNs make them difficult for human interpretation or understanding in science. In this article, we introduce a greedy structural compression scheme to obtain smaller and more interpretable CNNs, while achieving close to original accuracy. The compression is based on pruning filters with the least contribution to the classification accuracy or the lowest Classification Accuracy Reduction (CAR) importance index. We demonstrate the interpretability of CAR-compressed CNNs by showing that our algorithm prunes filters with visually redundant functionalities such as color filters. These compressed networks are easier to interpret because they retain the filter diversity of uncompressed networks with an order of magnitude fewer filters. Finally, a variant of CAR is introduced to quantify the importance of each image category to each CNN filter. Specifically, the most and the least important class labels are shown to be meaningful interpretations of each filter. 
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  2. Machine-learning models have demonstrated great success in learning complex patterns that enable them to make predictions about unobserved data. In addition to using models for prediction, the ability to interpret what a model has learned is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, this increased focus has led to considerable confusion about the notion of interpretability. In particular, it is unclear how the wide array of proposed interpretation methods are related and what common concepts can be used to evaluate them. We aim to address these concerns by defining interpretability in the context of machine learning and introducing the predictive, descriptive, relevant (PDR) framework for discussing interpretations. The PDR framework provides 3 overarching desiderata for evaluation: predictive accuracy, descriptive accuracy, and relevancy, with relevancy judged relative to a human audience. Moreover, to help manage the deluge of interpretation methods, we introduce a categorization of existing techniques into model-based and post hoc categories, with subgroups including sparsity, modularity, and simulatability. To demonstrate how practitioners can use the PDR framework to evaluate and understand interpretations, we provide numerous real-world examples. These examples highlight the often underappreciated role played by human audiences in discussions of interpretability. Finally, based on our framework, we discuss limitations of existing methods and directions for future work. We hope that this work will provide a common vocabulary that will make it easier for both practitioners and researchers to discuss and choose from the full range of interpretation methods. 
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