Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to nonfederal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

Olney, AM ; Chounta, IA ; Liu, Z ; Santos ; OC ; Bittencourt, II (Ed.)This work investigates how tutoring discourse interacts with students’ proximal knowledge to explain and predict students’ learning outcomes. Our work is conducted in the context of highdosage human tutoring where 9thgrade students (N = 1080) attended small group tutorials and individually practiced problems on an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We analyzed whether tutors’ talk moves and students’ performance on the ITS predicted scores on math learning assessments. We trained Random Forest Classifiers (RFCs) to distinguish high and low assessment scores based on tutor talk moves, student’s ITS performance metrics, and their combination. A decision tree was extracted from each RFC to yield an interpretable model. We found AUCs of 0.63 for talk moves, 0.66 for ITS, and 0.77 for their combination, suggesting interactivity among the two feature sources. Specifically, the best decision tree emerged from combining the tutor talk moves that encouraged rigorous thinking and students’ ITS mastery. In essence, tutor talk that encouraged mathematical reasoning predicted achievement for students who demonstrated high mastery on the ITS, whereas tutors’ revoicing of students’ mathematical ideas and contributions was predictive for students with low ITS mastery. Implications for practice are discussed.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available July 8, 2025

Olney, AM ; Chounta, IA ; Liu, Z ; Santos, OC ; Bittencourt, II (Ed.)This work investigates how tutoring discourse interacts with students’ proximal knowledge to explain and predict students’ learning outcomes. Our work is conducted in the context of highdosage human tutoring where 9thgrade students attended small group tutorials and individually practiced problems on an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We analyzed whether tutors’ talk moves and students’ performance on the ITS predicted scores on math learning assessments. We trained Random Forest Classifiers (RFCs) to distinguish high and low assessment scores based on tutor talk moves, student’s ITS performance metrics, and their combination. A decision tree was extracted from each RFC to yield an interpretable model. We found AUCs of 0.63 for talk moves, 0.66 for ITS, and 0.77 for their combination, suggesting interactivity among the two feature sources. Specifically, the best decision tree emerged from combining the tutor talk moves that encouraged rigorous thinking and students’ ITS mastery. In essence, tutor talk that encouraged mathematical reasoning predicted achievement for students who demonstrated high mastery on the ITS, whereas tutors’ revoicing of students’ mathematical ideas and contributions was predictive for students with low ITS mastery. Implications for practice are discussed.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available July 2, 2025

We explore eXplainable AI (XAI) to enhance user experience and understand the value of explanations in AIdriven pedagogical decisions within an Intelligent Pedagogical Agent (IPA). Our realtime and personalized explanations cater to students' attitudes to promote learning. In our empirical study, we evaluate the effectiveness of personalized explanations by comparing three versions of the IPA: (1) personalized explanations and suggestions, (2) suggestions but no explanations, and (3) no suggestions. Our results show the IPA with personalized explanations significantly improves students' learning outcomes compared to the other versions.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available October 23, 2024

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available October 1, 2024

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available September 19, 2024

Deep Reinforcement Learning (Deep RL) has revolutionized the field of Intelligent Tutoring Systems by providing effective pedagogical policies. However, the ``black box'' nature of Deep RL models makes it challenging to understand these policies. This study tackles this challenge by applying fuzzy logic to distill knowledge from Deep RLinduced policies into interpretable IFTHEN Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) rules. Our experiments show that these FLC policies significantly outperform expert policy and student decisions, demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. We propose a Temporal Granule Pattern (TGP) mining algorithm to increase the FLC rules' interpretability further. This work highlights the potential of fuzzy logic and TGP analysis to enhance understanding of Deep RLinduced pedagogical policies.more » « less

In deductive domains, three metacognitive knowledge types in ascending order are declarative, procedural, and conditional learning. This work leverages Deep Reinforcement Learning (\textit{DRL}) in providing \textit{adaptive} metacognitive interventions to bridge the gap between the three knowledge types and prepare students for future learning across Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). Students received these interventions that taught \textit{how} and \textit{when} to use a backwardchaining (BC) strategy on a logic tutor that supports a default forwardchaining strategy. Six weeks later, we trained students on a probability tutor that only supports BC without interventions. Our results show that on both ITSs, DRL bridged the metacognitive knowledge gap between students and significantly improved their learning performance over their control peers. Furthermore, the DRL policy adapted to the metacognitive development on the logic tutor across declarative, procedural, and conditional students, causing their strategic decisions to be more autonomous.more » « less