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  1. Abstract

    Experiments have been conducted in the DIII-D tokamak to explore thein-situgrowth of silicon-rich layers as a potential technique for real-time replenishment of surface coatings on plasma-facing components (PFCs) during steady-state long-pulse reactor operation. Silicon (Si) pellets of 1 mm diameter were injected into low- and high-confinement (L-mode and H-mode) plasma discharges with densities ranging from 3.9–7.5×1019m−3and input powers ranging from 5.5 to 9 MW. The small Si pellets were delivered with the impurity granule injector at frequencies ranging from 4 to 16 Hz corresponding to mass flow rates of 5–19 mg s−1(1–4.2×1020Si s−1) at cumulative amounts of up to 34 mg of Si per five-second discharge. Graphite samples were exposed to the scrape-off layer and private flux region plasmas through the divertor material evaluation system to evaluate the Si deposition on the divertor targets. The Si II emission at the sample correlates with silicon injection and suggests net surface Si-deposition in measurable amounts. Post-mortem analysis showed Si-rich coatings containing silicon oxides, of which SiO2is the dominant component. No evidence of SiC was found, which is attributed to low divertor surface temperatures. Thein-situand ex-situ analysis found that Si-rich coatings of at least 0.4–1.2 nm thickness have been deposited at 0.4–0.7 nm s−1. The technique is estimated to coat a surface area of at least 0.94 m2on the outer divertor. These results demonstrate the potential of using real-time material injection to form Si-enriched layers on divertor PFCs during reactor operation.

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    PG 1553 + 113 is one of the few blazars with a convincing quasi-periodic emission in the gamma-ray band. The source is also a very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. To better understand its properties and identify the underlying physical processes driving its variability, the MAGIC Collaboration initiated a multiyear, multiwavelength monitoring campaign in 2015 involving the OVRO 40-m and Medicina radio telescopes, REM, KVA, and the MAGIC telescopes, Swift and Fermi satellites, and the WEBT network. The analysis presented in this paper uses data until 2017 and focuses on the characterization of the variability. The gamma-ray data show a (hint of a) periodic signal compatible with literature, but the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray data do not show statistical evidence for a periodic signal. In other bands, the data are compatible with the gamma-ray period, but with a relatively high p-value. The complex connection between the low- and high-energy emission and the non-monochromatic modulation and changes in flux suggests that a simple one-zone model is unable to explain all the variability. Instead, a model including a periodic component along with multiple emission zones is required.

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  3. Abstract

    We present the results of a search for core-collapse supernova neutrinos, using long-term KamLAND data from 2002 March 9 to 2020 April 25. We focus on the electron antineutrinos emitted from supernovae in the energy range of 1.8–111 MeV. Supernovae will make a neutrino event cluster with the duration of ∼10 s in the KamLAND data. We find no neutrino clusters and give the upper limit on the supernova rate to be 0.15 yr−1with a 90% confidence level. The detectable range, which corresponds to a >95% detection probability, is 40–59 kpc and 65–81 kpc for core-collapse supernovae and failed core-collapse supernovae, respectively. This paper proposes to convert the supernova rate obtained by the neutrino observation to the Galactic star formation rate. Assuming a modified Salpeter-type initial mass function, the upper limit on the Galactic star formation rate is <(17.5–22.7)Myr−1with a 90% confidence level.

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  4. Abstract We present the results of a time-coincident event search for low-energy electron antineutrinos in the KamLAND detector with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network and Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor. Using a variable coincidence time window of ±500 s plus the duration of each GRB, no statistically significant excess above the background is observed. We place the world’s most stringent 90% confidence level upper limit on the electron antineutrino fluence below 17.5 MeV. Assuming a Fermi–Dirac neutrino energy spectrum from the GRB source, we use the available redshift data to constrain the electron antineutrino luminosity and effective temperature. 
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