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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 16, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Ignimbrite flare-ups are rare periods of intense silicic volcanism during which the pyroclastic volume and eruptive frequency is more than an order of magnitude higher than background activity. Investigating the compositional differences between flare-up and steady-state magmas provides critical constraints on the petrogenetic causes for the event and can offer unique opportunities to investigate the role of large-scale tectonic or geodynamic processes in arc magmatism. In this study, we focus on the bimodal Deschutes Formation ignimbrite flare-up of Central Oregon, which erupted unusually high volumes of pyroclastic material 6.25–5.45 Ma from a new axis of volcanism in the Cascades arc. This episode is marked by increased eruption rates and eruption of more silicic compositions relative to the Quaternary Cascade arc, which rarely erupts rhyolites. Ignimbrites are crystal-poor (<10%) dacite to rhyolites (mostly 65–77 wt.% SiO2) with anhydrous mineral assemblages and higher FeO/MgO, Y, Eu/Eu*, MREE and Zr/Sr, indicating drier magmatic evolution compared to the Quaternary arc, and are more similar to those from the rear-arc High Lava Plains (HLP) province that lies to the east. Magnetite-ilmenite oxybarometry indicates that Deschutes Formation felsic magmas tend to be hotter and more reduced (NNO-1 to NNO) than the Quaternary arc (NNO to NNO + 1.5). Rhyolite-MELTS geobarometry suggests complex storage of diverse Deschutes Formation magmas within the shallow crust (50–250 MPa), and the common co-eruption of multiple plagioclase populations, pumice compositions, and compositionally banded pumice suggest variable degrees of mixing and mingling of distinct magmas. Deschutes magmas also have low δ18Oplagioclase values that indicate partial melting and assimilation of hydrothermally altered shallow crust. Trace element systematics and rhyolite-MELTS modeling suggests that felsic pumice cannot be produced by simple fractionation of co-erupted mafic pumice or basaltic lavas, and requires a crustal melting origin, and trace elements and Pb isotopes suggest that young mafic crust may have been the primary protolith. We suggest that partial melting produced low-Si rhyolite melt (~72 wt.%) that acted as both a parent for the most evolved rhyolites, and as a mixing endmember to create the dacite to rhyodacite magmas with heterogenous plagioclase populations. Unlike the predominantly calc-alkaline basalts erupted in the Quaternary Cascade arc, Deschutes Formation primary basalts are mostly low-K tholeiites, indicative of decompression melting. These are similar to the compositions erupted during a contemporaneous pulse of low-K tholeiite volcanism across the whole HLP that reached into the Cascades rear-arc. We suggest that intra-arc extension focused decompression melts from the back-arc into the arc and that tensional stresses allowed this high flux of hot-dry-reduced basalt throughout the crustal column, causing partial melting of mafic protoliths and the production of hot-dry-reduced rhyolite melts. Depletion of incompatible elements in successive rhyolites implies progressive depletion in fertility of the protolith. Extension also allowed for the establishment of a robust hydrothermal system, and assimilation of hydrothermally-altered rocks by magmas residing in a shallow, complex storage network lead to low δ18O melts. Our findings suggest the integral role that extensional tectonics played in producing an unusual ignimbrite flare-up of hot-dry-reduced rhyolite magmas that are atypical of the Cascades arc and may be an important contributor to flare-ups at arcs worldwide. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Understanding the processes that initiate volcanic eruptions after periods of quiescence are of paramount importance to interpreting volcano monitoring signals and mitigating volcanic hazards. However, studies of eruption initiation mechanisms are rarely systematically applied to high-risk volcanoes. Studies of erupted materials provide important insight into eruption initiation, as they provide direct insight into the physical and chemical changes that occur in magma reservoirs prior to eruptions, but are also often underutilized. Petrologic and geochemical studies can also constrain the timing of processes involved in eruption initiation, and the time that might be expected to elapse between remote detection of increased activity and eventual eruption. A compilation and analysis of literature data suggests that there are statistical differences in the composition, volume, style and timescales between eruptions initiated by different mechanisms. Knowledge of the processes that initiate eruptions at a given volcano may thus have significant predictive power. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 18, 2024
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  8. Cybercafes remain a popular way to access the Internet in the developing world as many users still lack access to personal computers. Coupled with the recent digitization of government services, e.g. in Kenya, many users have turned to cybercafes to access essential services. Many of these users may have never used a computer, and face significant security and privacy issues at cybercafes. Yet, these challenges as well as the advice offered remain largely unexplored. We investigate these challenges along with the security advice and support provided by the operators at cybercafes in Kenya through n = 36 semi-structured interviews (n = 14 with cybercafe managers and n = 22 with customers). We find that cybercafes serve a crucial role in Kenya by enabling access to printing and government services. However, most customers face challenges with computer usage as well as security and usability challenges with account creation and password management. As a workaround, customers often rely on the support and advice of cybercafe managers who mostly direct them to use passwords that are memorable, e.g. simply using their national ID numbers or names. Some managers directly manage passwords for their customers, with one even using the same password for all their customers. These results suggest the need for more awareness about phone-based password managers, as well as a need for computer training and security awareness among these users. There is also a need to explore security and privacy advice beyond Western peripheries to support broader populations 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    We examine major reorganizations of the terrestrial ecosystem around Mono Lake, California during the last deglacial period from 16,000–9,000 cal yr BP using pollen, microcharcoal, and coprophilous fungal spores (Sporormiella) from a deep-water sediment core. The pollen results record the assemblage, decline, and replacement of a mixed wooded community of Sierran and Great Basin taxa with Alkali Sink and Sagebrush Steppe biomes around Mono Lake. In particular, the enigmatic presence ofSequoiadendron-type pollen and its extirpation during the early Holocene hint at substantial biogeographic reorganizations on the Sierran-Great Basin ecotone during deglaciation. Rapid regional hydroclimate changes produced structural alterations in pine–juniper woodlands facilitated by increases in wildfires at 14,800 cal yr BP, 13,900 cal yr BP, and 12,800 cal yr BP. The rapid canopy changes altered the availability of herbaceous understory plants, likely putting pressure on megafauna populations, which declined in a stepwise fashion at 15,000 cal yr BP and 12,700 cal yr BP before final extirpation from Mono Basin at 11,500 cal yr BP. However, wooded vegetation communities overall remained resistant to abrupt hydroclimate changes during the late Pleistocene; instead, they gradually declined and were replaced by Alkali Sink communities in the lowlands as temperature increased into the Early Holocene, and Mono Lake regressed.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024