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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Hydrogels are candidate building blocks in a wide range of biomaterial applications including soft and biohybrid robotics, microfluidics, and tissue engineering. Recent advances in embedded 3D printing have broadened the design space accessible with hydrogel additive manufacturing. Specifically, the Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH) technique has enabled the fabrication of complex 3D structures using extremely soft hydrogels, e.g., alginate and collagen, by assembling hydrogels within a fugitive support bath. However, the low structural rigidity of FRESH printed hydrogels limits their applications, especially those that require operation in nonaqueous environments. In this study, we demonstrated long-fiber embedded hydrogel 3Dmore »printing using a multihead printing platform consisting of a custom-built fiber extruder and an open-source FRESH bioprinter with high embedding fidelity. Using this process, fibers were embedded in 3D printed hydrogel components to achieve significant structural reinforcement (e.g., tensile modulus improved from 56.78 ± 8.76 to 382.55 ± 25.29 kPa and tensile strength improved from 9.44 ± 2.28 to 45.05 ± 5.53 kPa). In addition, we demonstrated the versatility of this technique by using fibers of a wide range of sizes and material types and implementing different 2D and 3D embedding patterns, such as embedding a conical helix using electrochemically aligned collagen fiber via nonplanar printing. Moreover, the technique was implemented using low-cost material and is compatible with open-source software and hardware, which facilitates its adoption and modification for new research applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Abstract While the anomalous Hall effect can manifest even without an external magnetic field, time reversal symmetry is nonetheless still broken by the internal magnetization of the sample. Recently, it has been shown that certain materials without an inversion center allow for a nonlinear type of anomalous Hall effect whilst retaining time reversal symmetry. The effect may arise from either Berry curvature or through various asymmetric scattering mechanisms. Here, we report the observation of an extremely large c -axis nonlinear anomalous Hall effect in the non-centrosymmetric T d phase of MoTe 2 and WTe 2 without intrinsic magnetic order. Wemore »find that the effect is dominated by skew-scattering at higher temperatures combined with another scattering process active at low temperatures. Application of higher bias yields an extremely large Hall ratio of E ⊥ / E ||  = 2.47 and corresponding anomalous Hall conductivity of order 8 × 10 7  S/m.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  6. Reactions in aqueous solutions containing dicarbonyls (especially the α-dicarbonyls methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and biacetyl) and reduced nitrogen (NHx) have been studied extensively. It has been proposed that accretion reactions from dicarbonyls and NHx could be a source of particulate matter and brown carbon in the atmosphere and therefore have direct implications for human health and climate. Other dicarbonyls, such as the 1,4-unsaturated dialdehyde butenedial, are also produced from the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, especially aromatics and furans, but their aqueous-phase reactions with NHx have not been characterized. In this work, we determine a pH-dependent mechanism of butenedial reactions inmore »aqueous solutions with NHx that is compared to α-dicarbonyls, in particular the dialdehyde glyoxal. Similar to glyoxal, butenedial is strongly hydrated in aqueous solutions. Butenedial reaction with NHx also produces nitrogen-containing rings and leads to accretion reactions that form brown carbon. Despite glyoxal and butenedial both being dialdehydes, butenedial is observed to have three significant differences in its chemical behavior: (1) as previously shown, butenedial does not substantially form acetal oligomers, (2) the butenedial/OH− reaction leads to light-absorbing compounds, and (3) the butenedial/NHx reaction is fast and first order in the dialdehyde. Building off of a complementary study on butenedial gas-particle partitioning, we suggest that the behavior of other reactive dialdehydes and dicarbonyls may not always be adequately predicted by α-dicarbonyls, even though their dominant functionalities are closely related. The carbon skeleton (e.g., its hydrophobicity, length, and bond structure) also governs the fate and climate-relevant properties of dicarbonyls in the atmosphere. If other dicarbonyls behave like butenedial, their reaction with NHx could constitute a regional source of brown carbon to the atmosphere.« less
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 20, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2022