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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 12, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Marshall, Wallace (Ed.)
    Motile cilia beat with an asymmetric waveform consisting of a power stroke that generates a propulsive force and a recovery stroke that returns the cilium back to the start. Cilia are anchored to the cell cortex by basal bodies (BBs) that are directly coupled to the ciliary doublet microtubules (MTs). We find that, consistent with ciliary forces imposing on BBs, bending patterns in BB triplet MTs are responsive to ciliary beating. BB bending varies as environmental conditions change the ciliary waveform. Bending occurs where striated fibers (SFs) attach to BBs and mutants with short SFs that fail to connect to adjacent BBs exhibit abnormal BB bending, supporting a model in which SFs couple ciliary forces between BBs. Finally, loss of the BB stability protein Poc1, which helps interconnect BB triplet MTs, prevents the normal distributed BB and ciliary bending patterns. Collectively, BBs experience ciliary forces and manage mechanical coupling of these forces to their surrounding cellular architecture for normal ciliary beating. 
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  4. Abstract

    We study three convolutions of polynomials in the context of free probability theory. We prove that these convolutions can be written as the expected characteristic polynomials of sums and products of unitarily invariant random matrices. The symmetric additive and multiplicative convolutions were introduced by Walsh and Szegö in different contexts, and have been studied for a century. The asymmetric additive convolution, and the connection of all of them with random matrices, is new. By developing the analogy with free probability, we prove that these convolutions produce real rooted polynomials and provide strong bounds on the locations of the roots of these polynomials.

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  5. Discher, Dennis (Ed.)
    Hydrodynamic flow produced by multiciliated cells is critical for fluid circulation and cell motility. Hundreds of cilia beat with metachronal synchrony for fluid flow. Cilia-driven fluid flow produces extracellular hydrodynamic forces that cause neighboring cilia to beat in a synchronized manner. However, hydrodynamic coupling between neighboring cilia is not the sole mechanism that drives cilia synchrony. Cilia are nucleated by basal bodies (BBs) that link to each other and to the cell’s cortex via BB-associated appendages. The intracellular BB and cortical network is hypothesized to synchronize ciliary beating by transmitting cilia coordination cues. The extent of intracellular ciliary connections and the nature of these stimuli remain unclear. Moreover, how BB connections influence the dynamics of individual cilia has not been established. We show by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy imaging that cilia are coupled both longitudinally and laterally in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila by the underlying BB and cortical cytoskeletal network. To visualize the behavior of individual cilia in live, immobilized Tetrahymena cells, we developed Delivered Iron Particle Ubiety Live Light (DIPULL) microscopy. Quantitative and computer analyses of ciliary dynamics reveal that BB connections control ciliary waveform and coordinate ciliary beating. Loss of BB connections reduces cilia-dependent fluid flow forces. 
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  6. Abstract

    We present a new computational framework of neuron growth based on the phase field method and develop an open-source software package called “NeuronGrowth_IGAcollocation”. Neurons consist of a cell body, dendrites, and axons. Axons and dendrites are long processes extending from the cell body and enabling information transfer to and from other neurons. There is high variation in neuron morphology based on their location and function, thus increasing the complexity in mathematical modeling of neuron growth. In this paper, we propose a novel phase field model with isogeometric collocation to simulate different stages of neuron growth by considering the effect of tubulin. The stages modeled include lamellipodia formation, initial neurite outgrowth, axon differentiation, and dendrite formation considering the effect of intracellular transport of tubulin on neurite outgrowth. Through comparison with experimental observations, we can demonstrate qualitatively and quantitatively similar reproduction of neuron morphologies at different stages of growth and allow extension towards the formation of neurite networks.

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