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  1. Within the larger narrative of mathematics as the key to both individuals' and society's economic prosperity (Jones, 2022; Shah, 2019), lies the commonly held perception that mathematics is an emotionless and objective subject (Goldin & DeBellis, 2006; Taylor, 1996). In the public political sphere quantitative measures have long been used to provide a mirage of logic and objectivity to arguments, and end conversations because one can only argue numbers with other numbers (see e.g., Ewing, 2018, Mudry, 2009). Additionally, the use of mathematics in political spaces cloaks the individual in a guise of neutrality because the numbers suggest a nonpartisan perspective of phenomena. These myths of mathematics as objective and neutral (i.e., acultural, ahistorical) are weaponized to divert responsibility such that the perpetuation of injustice goes unremedied and irremediable (see e.g., Bonilla-Silva, 2010). In this paper, we use a critical race spatial perspective (Morrison et al. 2017; Solórzano & Vélez, 2016; Vélez & Solórzano, 2017) to demonstrate how the myth of mathematics as objective and neutral provides opportunities to use those narratives to maintain and perpetuate white supremacy. We reveal this by focusing on the discourse of public comments given during a series of school board meetings on the redrawing of Wilhelm elementary school’s attendance zone (all names are pseudonyms). Through the public comments, mathematics was evoked by those advocating for the proposed attendance zone to move 311 students, the majority of which are South Asian and Latinx, as a way to position themselves as neutral. Understanding how mathematics is used in public spheres, particularly in local political spaces like school board meetings, can provide insight into how racism is present in these conversations, yet not explicitly discussed. 
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  2. Bateiha, S. ; Cobbs, G. (Ed.)
    This study highlights parents’ linguistic capital and how they use specific languaging practices to facilitate their child’s learning. One bilingual family used multiple languages to facilitate their son’s learning through two mathematical tasks. Using Dominguez’ conceptual framework of bilingualism, we analyzed these conversations to look for natural units of communication and its relation towards their problem solving goals. The data shows the family would switch from English to Spanish to help their child surpass several barriers during their mathematical activities. Leveraging bilingual languaging practices can counter the deficit lens with which minoritized students are typically viewed. 
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  3. ABSTRACT

    PG 1553 + 113 is one of the few blazars with a convincing quasi-periodic emission in the gamma-ray band. The source is also a very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. To better understand its properties and identify the underlying physical processes driving its variability, the MAGIC Collaboration initiated a multiyear, multiwavelength monitoring campaign in 2015 involving the OVRO 40-m and Medicina radio telescopes, REM, KVA, and the MAGIC telescopes, Swift and Fermi satellites, and the WEBT network. The analysis presented in this paper uses data until 2017 and focuses on the characterization of the variability. The gamma-ray data show a (hint of a) periodic signal compatible with literature, but the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray data do not show statistical evidence for a periodic signal. In other bands, the data are compatible with the gamma-ray period, but with a relatively high p-value. The complex connection between the low- and high-energy emission and the non-monochromatic modulation and changes in flux suggests that a simple one-zone model is unable to explain all the variability. Instead, a model including a periodic component along with multiple emission zones is required.

     
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  4. Abstract We report on a long-lasting, elevated gamma-ray flux state from VER J0521+211 observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and Fermi-LAT in 2013 and 2014. The peak integral flux above 200 GeV measured with the nightly binned light curve is (8.8 ± 0.4) × 10 −7 photons m −2 s −1 , or ∼37% of the Crab Nebula flux. Multiwavelength observations from X-ray, UV, and optical instruments are also presented. A moderate correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes was observed, and the X-ray spectrum appeared harder when the flux was higher. Using the gamma-ray spectrum and four models of the extragalactic background light (EBL), a conservative 95% confidence upper limit on the redshift of the source was found to be z ≤ 0.31. Unlike the gamma-ray and X-ray bands, the optical flux did not increase significantly during the studied period compared to the archival low-state flux. The spectral variability from optical to X-ray bands suggests that the synchrotron peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) may become broader during flaring states, which can be adequately described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model varying the high-energy end of the underlying particle spectrum. The synchrotron peak frequency of the SED and the radio morphology of the jet from the MOJAVE program are consistent with the source being an intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object. 
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  5. ABSTRACT MAXI J1820+070 is a low-mass X-ray binary with a black hole (BH) as a compact object. This binary underwent an exceptionally bright X-ray outburst from 2018 March to October, showing evidence of a non-thermal particle population through its radio emission during this whole period. The combined results of 59.5 h of observations of the MAXI J1820+070 outburst with the H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS experiments at energies above 200 GeV are presented, together with Fermi-LAT data between 0.1 and 500 GeV, and multiwavelength observations from radio to X-rays. Gamma-ray emission is not detected from MAXI J1820+070, but the obtained upper limits and the multiwavelength data allow us to put meaningful constraints on the source properties under reasonable assumptions regarding the non-thermal particle population and the jet synchrotron spectrum. In particular, it is possible to show that, if a high-energy (HE) gamma-ray emitting region is present during the hard state of the source, its predicted flux should be at most a factor of 20 below the obtained Fermi-LAT upper limits, and closer to them for magnetic fields significantly below equipartition. During the state transitions, under the plausible assumption that electrons are accelerated up to ∼500 GeV, the multiwavelength data and the gamma-ray upper limits lead consistently to the conclusion that a potential HE and very-HE gamma-ray emitting region should be located at a distance from the BH ranging between 1011 and 1013 cm. Similar outbursts from low-mass X-ray binaries might be detectable in the near future with upcoming instruments such as CTA. 
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