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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 19, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Microbial production of cannabinoids promises to provide a consistent, cheaper, and more sustainable supply of these important therapeutic molecules. However, scaling production to compete with traditional plant-based sources is challenging. Our ability to make strain variants greatly exceeds our capacity to screen and identify high producers, creating a bottleneck in metabolic engineering efforts. Here, we present a yeast-based biosensor for detecting microbially produced Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to increase throughput and lower the cost of screening. We port five human cannabinoid G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) into yeast, showing the cannabinoid type 2 receptor, CB2R, can couple to the yeast pheromone response pathway and report on the concentration of a variety of cannabinoids over a wide dynamic and operational range. We demonstrate that our cannabinoid biosensor can detect THC from microbial cell culture and use this as a tool for measuring relative production yields from a library of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid synthase (THCAS) mutants.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Despite the availability of Cas9 variants with varied protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) compatibilities, some genomic loci—especially those with pyrimidine-rich PAM sequences—remain inaccessible by high-activity Cas9 proteins. Moreover, broadening PAM sequence compatibility through engineering can increase off-target activity. With directed evolution, we generated four Cas9 variants that together enable targeting of most pyrimidine-rich PAM sequences in the human genome. Using phage-assisted noncontinuous evolution and eVOLVER-supported phage-assisted continuous evolution, we evolved Nme2Cas9, a compact Cas9 variant, into variants that recognize single-nucleotide pyrimidine-PAM sequences. We developed a general selection strategy that requires functional editing with fully specified target protospacers and PAMs. We applied this selection to evolve high-activity variants eNme2-T.1, eNme2-T.2, eNme2-C and eNme2-C.NR. Variants eNme2-T.1 and eNme2-T.2 offer access to N4TN PAM sequences with comparable editing efficiencies as existing variants, while eNme2-C and eNme2-C.NR offer less restrictive PAM requirements, comparable or higher activity in a variety of human cell types and lower off-target activity at N4CN PAM sequences.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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    Learning continually from non-stationary data streams is a long-standing goal and a challenging problem in machine learning. Recently, we have witnessed a renewed and fast-growing interest in continual learning, especially within the deep learning community. However, algorithmic solutions are often difficult to re-implement, evaluate and port across different settings, where even results on standard benchmarks are hard to reproduce. In this work, we propose Avalanche, an open-source end-to-end library for continual learning research based on PyTorch. Avalanche is designed to provide a shared and collaborative codebase for fast prototyping, training, and reproducible evaluation of continual learning algorithms. 
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