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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2023
  2. An intelligent system can provide sufficient collaborative opportunities and support yet fail to be pedagogically effective if the students are unwilling to participate. One of the common ways to assess motivation is using self-report questionnaires, which often do not take the context and the dynamic aspect of motivation into account. To address this, we propose personas, a user-centered design approach. We describe two design iterations where we: identify motivational factors related to students’ collaborative behaviors; and develop a set of representative personas. These personas could be embedded in an interface and be used as an alternative method to assess motivationmore »within ITS.« less
  3. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments are often designed to support collaboration within a single digital platform. However, with the growth of technology in classrooms, students often find themselves working in multiple contexts (i.e., a student might work face-to-face with a peer on one task and then move to engaging in an online discussion for homework). We have created a CSCL environment that aims to support student help-giving across a variety of digital platforms. This paper describes three cycles of a design-based research study that aims to design a system to support help-giving and improve interaction quantity and quality across differentmore »contexts as well as to better understand whether students benefit by the addition of multiple contexts. The paper shares major refinements across the three cycles that worked to balance research, pedagogical, and technological goals to improve students’ help-giving behavior in a middle-school mathematics classroom.« less
  4. A low-energy hardware implementation of deep belief network (DBN) architecture is developed using near-zero energy barrier probabilistic spin logic devices (p-bits), which are modeled to real- ize an intrinsic sigmoidal activation function. A CMOS/spin based weighted array structure is designed to implement a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). Device-level simulations based on precise physics relations are used to validate the sigmoidal relation between the output probability of a p-bit and its input currents. Characteristics of the resistive networks and p-bits are modeled in SPICE to perform a circuit-level simulation investigating the performance, area, and power consumption tradeoffs of the weighted array.more »In the application-level simulation, a DBN is implemented in MATLAB for digit recognition using the extracted device and circuit behavioral models. The MNIST data set is used to assess the accuracy of the DBN using 5,000 training images for five distinct network topologies. The results indicate that a baseline error rate of 36.8% for a 784x10 DBN trained by 100 samples can be reduced to only 3.7% using a 784x800x800x10 DBN trained by 5,000 input samples. Finally, Power dissipation and accuracy tradeoffs for probabilistic computing mechanisms using resistive devices are identified.« less
  5. Abstract The CMS Inner Tracker, made of silicon pixel modules, will be entirely replaced prior to the start of the High Luminosity LHC period. One of the crucial components of the new Inner Tracker system is the readout chip, being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, and in particular its analogue front-end, which receives the signal from the sensor and digitizes it. Three different analogue front-ends (Synchronous, Linear, and Differential) were designed and implemented in the RD53A demonstrator chip. A dedicated evaluation program was carried out to select the most suitable design to build a radiation tolerant pixel detector able tomore »sustain high particle rates with high efficiency and a small fraction of spurious pixel hits. The test results showed that all three analogue front-ends presented strong points, but also limitations. The Differential front-end demonstrated very low noise, but the threshold tuning became problematic after irradiation. Moreover, a saturation in the preamplifier feedback loop affected the return of the signal to baseline and thus increased the dead time. The Synchronous front-end showed very good timing performance, but also higher noise. For the Linear front-end all of the parameters were within specification, although this design had the largest time walk. This limitation was addressed and mitigated in an improved design. The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the three front-ends in the context of the CMS Inner Tracker operation requirements led to the selection of the improved design Linear front-end for integration in the final CMS readout chip.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. Abstract During the operation of the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC the silicon sensors of the Phase-2 Outer Tracker will be exposed to radiation levels that could potentially deteriorate their performance. Previous studies had determined that planar float zone silicon with n-doped strips on a p-doped substrate was preferred over p-doped strips on an n-doped substrate. The last step in evaluating the optimal design for the mass production of about 200 m 2 of silicon sensors was to compare sensors of baseline thickness (about 300 μm) to thinned sensors (about 240 μm), which promised several benefits at high radiationmore »levels because of the higher electric fields at the same bias voltage. This study provides a direct comparison of these two thicknesses in terms of sensor characteristics as well as charge collection and hit efficiency for fluences up to 1.5 × 10 15 n eq /cm 2 . The measurement results demonstrate that sensors with about 300 μm thickness will ensure excellent tracking performance even at the highest considered fluence levels expected for the Phase-2 Outer Tracker.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022