skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Ahmed, Z."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 15, 2024
  2. Synthetic transformation of d -xylose into a four-membered cyclic ether allows for reactions with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leading to linear polycarbonates by either a one-step ring-opening copolymerisation (ROCOP) directly, or by sequential isolation of a preformed six-membered cyclic carbonate followed by ring-opening polymerisation (ROP).
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Carbon dioxide based polymers synthesized from the metal-catalyzed copolymeriation of epoxides and CO 2 containing the terpyridine ligand as an end group are reported. The strategy used was to carry out the polymerization in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of terpyridine, 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (HL), as a chain transfer agent. The epoxide monomer possessing a vinyl substituent, allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was copolymerized with CO 2 employing a (salen)Co( iii ) catalyst to afford a polycarbonate which upon the addition of mercaptoacetic acid across the double bond, followed by deprotonation, yielded a water soluble polymer. In a similar manner, the sequential formation of a diblock terpolymer produced from propylene oxide, AGE, and CO 2 provided a amphiphilic polycarbonate which self-assembled upon addition to water to form micelle nanostructures. The molecular weights of these CO 2 -derived polycarbonates were shown to be easily controlled by the quantity of chain transfer agent used. These polymeric ligands were demonstrated to provide a modular design for synthesizing a wide variety of metal complexes as illustrated herein for zinc and platinum derivatives.
  6. Abstract

    We present estimates of line-of-sight distortion fields derived from the 95 and 150 GHz data taken by BICEP2, BICEP3, and the Keck Array up to the 2018 observing season, leading to cosmological constraints and a study of instrumental and astrophysical systematics. Cosmological constraints are derived from three of the distortion fields concerning gravitational lensing from large-scale structure, polarization rotation from magnetic fields or an axion-like field, and the screening effect of patchy reionization. We measure an amplitude of the lensing power spectrumALϕϕ=0.95±0.20. We constrain polarization rotation, expressed as the coupling constant of a Chern–Simons electromagnetic termgaγ≤ 2.6 × 10−2/HI, whereHIis the inflationary Hubble parameter, and an amplitude of primordial magnetic fields smoothed over 1 MpcB1Mpc≤ 6.6 nG at 95 GHz. We constrain the rms of optical depth fluctuations in a simple “crinkly surface” model of patchy reionization, findingAτ< 0.19 (2σ) for the coherence scale ofLc= 100. We show that all of the distortion fields of the 95 and 150 GHz polarization maps are consistent with simulations including lensed ΛCDM, dust, and noise, with no evidence for instrumental systematics. In some cases, theEBandTBquadratic estimators presented here are more sensitive than our previous map-based null tests at identifyingmore »and rejecting spuriousB-modes that might arise from instrumental effects. Finally, we verify that the standard deprojection filtering in the BICEP/Keck data processing is effective at removing temperature to polarization leakage.

    « less
  7. Abstract

    We characterize Galactic dust filaments by correlating BICEP/Keck and Planck data with polarization templates based on neutral hydrogen (Hi) observations. Dust polarization is important for both our understanding of astrophysical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the search for primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In the diffuse ISM, Hiis strongly correlated with the dust and partly organized into filaments that are aligned with the local magnetic field. We analyze the deep BICEP/Keck data at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, over the low-column-density region of sky where BICEP/Keck has set the best limits on primordial gravitational waves. We separate the Hiemission into distinct velocity components and detect dust polarization correlated with the local Galactic Hibut not with the Hiassociated with Magellanic Streami. We present a robust, multifrequency detection of polarized dust emission correlated with the filamentary Himorphology template down to 95 GHz. For assessing its utility for foreground cleaning, we report that the Himorphology template correlates inBmodes at a ∼10%–65% level over the multipole range 20 << 200 with the BICEP/Keck maps, which contain contributions from dust, CMB, and noise components. We measure the spectral index of the filamentary dust component spectral energy distribution tomore »beβ= 1.54 ± 0.13. We find no evidence for decorrelation in this region between the filaments and the rest of the dust field or from the inclusion of dust associated with the intermediate velocity Hi. Finally, we explore the morphological parameter space in the Hi-based filamentary model.

    « less
  8. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    Constraining the Galactic foregrounds with multi-frequency Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations is an essential step towards ultimately reaching the sensitivity to measure primordial gravitational waves (PGWs), the sign of inflation after the Big-Bang that would be imprinted on the CMB. The BICEP Array is a set of multi-frequency cameras designed to constrain the energy scale of inflation through CMB B-mode searches while also controlling the polarized galactic foregrounds. The lowest frequency BICEP Array receiver (BA1) has been observing from the South Pole since 2020 and provides 30 GHz and 40 GHz data to characterize galactic synchrotron in our CMB maps. In this paper, we present the design of the BA1 detectors and the full optical characterization of the camera including the on-sky performance at the South Pole. The paper also introduces the design challenges during the first observing season including the effect of out-of-band photons on detectors performance. It also describes the tests done to diagnose that effect and the new upgrade to minimize these photons, as well as installing more dichroic detectors during the 2022 deployment season to improve the BA1 sensitivity. We finally report background noise measurements of the detectors with the goal of having photon-noise dominated detectorsmore »in both optical channels. BA1 achieves an improvement in mapping speed compared to the previous deployment season.« less