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  3. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae secretes multiple effectors that modulate plant defenses. Some effectors trigger defenses due to specific recognition by plant immune complexes, whereas others can suppress the resulting immune responses. The HopZ3 effector of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a (PsyB728a) is an acetyltransferase that modifies not only components of plant immune complexes, but also the Psy effectors that activate these complexes. In Arabidopsis, HopZ3 acetylates the host RPM1 complex and the Psy effectors AvrRpm1 and AvrB3. This study focuses on the role of HopZ3 during tomato infection. In Psy-resistant tomato, the main immune complex includes PRF and PTO,more »a RIPK-family kinase that recognizes the AvrPto effector. HopZ3 acts as avirulence factor on tomato by suppressing AvrPto1Psy-triggered immunity. HopZ3acetylates AvrPto1Psy and the host proteins PTO, SlRIPK and SlRIN4s. Biochemical reconstruction and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that acetylation acts in multiple ways to suppress immune signaling in tomato. First, acetylation disrupts the critical AvrPto1Psy-PTO interaction needed to initiate the immune response. Unmodified residues at the binding interface of both proteins and at other residues needed for binding are acetylated. Second, acetylation occurs at residues important for AvrPto1Psy function but not for binding to PTO. Finally, acetylation reduces specific phosphorylations needed for promoting the immune-inducing activity of HopZ3’s targets such as AvrPto1Psy and PTO. In some cases, acetylation competes with phosphorylation. HopZ3-mediated acetylation suppresses the kinase activity of SlRIPK and the phosphorylation of its SlRIN4 substrate previously implicated in PTO-signaling. Thus, HopZ3 disrupts the functions of multiple immune components and the effectors that trigger them, leading to increased susceptibility to infection. Finally, mass 44 spectrometry used to map specific acetylated residues confirmed HopZ3’s unusual capacity to modify histidine in addition to serine, threonine and lysine residues.« less