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  1. Shellular Funicular Structures (SFSs) are single-layer, two-manifold structures with anticlastic curvature, designed in the context of graphic statics. They are considered as efficient structures applicable to many functions on different scales. Due to their complex geometry, design and fabrication of SFSs are quite challenging, limiting their application in large scales. Furthermore, designing these structures for a predefined boundary condition, control, and manipulation of their geometry are not easy tasks. Moreover, fabricating these geometries is mostly possible using additive manufacturing techniques, requiring a lot of support in the printing process. Cellular funicular structures (CFSs) as strut-based spatial structures can be easily designed and manipulated in the context of graphic statics. This paper introduces a computational algorithm for translating a Cellular Funicular Structure (CFS) to a Shellular Funicular Structure (SFS). Furthermore, it explains a fabrication method to build the structure out of a flat sheet of material using the origami/ kirigami technique as an ideal choice because of its accessibility, processibility, low cost, and applicability to large scales. The paper concludes by displaying a design and fabricated structure using this technique.
  2. Space frames are widely used in spatial constructions as they are lightweight, rigid, and efficient. However, when it comes to the complex and irregular spaces frames, they can be difficult to fabricate because of the uniqueness of the nodes and bars. This paper presents a novel timber space frame system that can be easily manufactured using 3-axis CNC machines, and therefore increase the ease of the design and construction of complex space frames. The form-finding of the space frame is achieved with the help of polyhedral graphic statics (PGS), and resulted form has inherent planarity which can be harnessed in the materialization of the structure. Inspired by the traditional wood tectonics kerf bending and zippers are applied when devising the connection details. This system's design approach and computational process are described, and a test fabrication of a single node is made via 3-axis CNC milling and both physically and numerically tested. The structural performance shows its potential for applications in large-scale spatial structures.
  3. The recent development of three-dimensional graphic statics using polyhedral reciprocal diagrams (PGS) has greatly increased the ease of designing complex yet efficient spatial funicular structural forms, where the inherent planarity of the polyhedral geometries can be harnessed for efficient construction processes. Our previous research has shown the feasibility of leveraging this planarity in materializing a 10m-span, double-layer glass bridge made of 1cm glass sheets. This paper presents a smaller bridge prototype with a span of 2.5m to address the larger bridge’s challenges regarding form-finding, detail developments, fabrication constraints, and assembly logic. The compression-only prototype is designed for prefabrication as a modular system using PolyFrame for Rhinoceros. Thirteen polyhedral cells of the funicular bridge are materialized in the form of hollow glass units (HGUs) and can be prefabricated and assembled on-site. Each HGU consists of two deck plates and multiple side plates held together using 3M™ Very High Bond (VHB) tape. A male-female glass connection mechanism is developed at the sides of HGUs to interlock each unit with its adjacent cells to prevent sliding. A transparent interface material is placed between the male and female connecting parts to avoid local stress concentration. This novel construction method significantly simplifies the bridge’s assemblymore »on a large scale. The design and construction of this small-scale prototype set the foundation for the future development of the full-scale structure.« less