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Creators/Authors contains: "Ala-Lahti, Matti"

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  1. Abstract

    The radial evolution of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) is dependent on their interaction with the ambient medium, which causes ICME erosion and affects their geoefficiency. Here, an ICME front boundary, which separates the confined ejecta from the mixed, interacted sheath–ejecta plasma upstream, is analyzed in a multipoint study examining the ICME at 1 au on 2020 April 20. A bifurcated current sheet, highly filamented currents, and a two-sided jet were observed at the boundary. The two-sided jet, which was recorded for the first time for a magnetic shear angle <40°, implies multiple (patchy) reconnection sites associated with the ICME erosion. The reconnection exhaust exhibited fine structure, including multistep magnetic field rotation and localized structures that were measured only by separate Cluster spacecraft with the mission inter-spacecraft separation of 0.4–1.6RE. The mixed plasma upstream of the boundary with a precursor at 0.8 au lacked coherency at 1 au and exhibited substantial variations of southward magnetic fields over radial (transverse) distances of 41–237RE(114RE). This incoherence demonstrates the need for continuous (sub)second-resolution plasma and field measurements at multiple locations in the solar wind to adequately address the spatiotemporal structure of ICMEs and to produce accurate space weather predictions.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Solar wind—magnetosphere coupling drives magnetospheric dynamic phenomena by enabling energy exchange between magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas. In this study, we examine two‐dimensional noon‐midnight meridional plane simulation runs of the global hybrid‐Vlasov code Vlasiator with southward interplanetary magnetic field driving. We compute the energy flux, which consists of the Poynting flux and hydrodynamic energy flux components, through the Earth's magnetopause during flux transfer events (FTEs). The results demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of the energy flux along the magnetopause during an FTE, associating the FTE leading (trailing) edge with an energy injection into (escape from) the magnetosphere on the dayside. Furthermore, FTEs traveling along the magnetopause transport energy to the nightside magnetosphere. We identify the tail lobes as a primary entry region for solar wind energy into the magnetosphere, consistent with results from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and observations.

     
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  3. Abstract

    The transmission of a sheath region driven by an interplanetary coronal mass ejection into the Earth's magnetosheath is studied by investigating in situ magnetic field measurements upstream and downstream of the bow shock during an ICME sheath passage on 15 May 2005. We observe three distinct intervals in the immediate upstream region that included a southward magnetic field component and are traveling foreshocks. These traveling foreshocks were observed in the quasi‐parallel bow shock that hosted backstreaming ions and magnetic fluctuations at ultralow frequencies. The intervals constituting traveling foreshocks in the upstream survive transmission to the Earth's magnetosheath, where their magnetic field, and particularly the southward component, was significantly amplified. Our results further suggest that the magnetic field fluctuations embedded in an ICME sheath may survive the transmission if their frequency is below ∼0.01 Hz. Although one of the identified intervals was coherent, extending across the ICME sheath and being long‐lived, predicting ICME sheath magnetic fields that may transmit to the Earth's magnetosheath from the upstream at L1 observations has ambiguity. This can result from the strong spatial variability of the ICME sheath fields in the longitudinal direction, or alternatively from the ICME sheath fields developing substantially within the short time it takes the plasma to propagate from L1 to the bow shock. This study demonstrates the complex interplay ICME sheaths have with the Earth's magnetosphere when passing by the planet.

     
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