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  1. Abstract Coastal habitats are experiencing decreases in seawater pH and increases in temperature due to anthropogenic climate change. The Caribbean king crab, Maguimithrax spinosissimus , plays a vital role on Western Atlantic reefs by grazing macroalgae that competes for space with coral recruits. Therefore, identifying its tolerance to anthropogenic stressors is critically needed if this species is to be considered as a potential restoration management strategy in coral reef environments. We examined the effects of temperature (control: 28 °C and elevated: 31 °C) and pH (control: 8.0 and reduced pH: 7.7) on the king crab’s larval and early juvenile survival, molt-stage duration,more »and morphology in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival to the megalopal stage was reduced (13.5% lower) in the combined reduced pH and elevated temperature treatment relative to the control. First-stage (J1) juveniles delayed molting by 1.5 days in the reduced pH treatment, while second-stage (J2) crabs molted 3 days earlier when exposed to elevated temperature. Juvenile morphology did not differ among treatments. These results suggests that juvenile king crabs are tolerant to changes associated with climate change. Given the important role of the king crab as a grazer of macroalgae, its tolerance to climate stressors suggests that it could benefit restoration efforts aimed at making coral reefs more resilient to increasingly warm and acidic oceans into the future.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Real-time monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract in a safe and comfortable manner is valuable for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. Within this realm, our review captures the trends in ingestible capsule systems with a focus on hardware and software technologies used for capsule endoscopy and remote patient monitoring. We introduce the structure and functions of the gastrointestinal tract, and the FDA guidelines for ingestible wireless telemetric medical devices. We survey the advanced features incorporated in ingestible capsule systems, such as microrobotics, closed-loop feedback, physiological sensing, nerve stimulation, sampling and delivery, panoramic imaging with adaptive frame rates, and rapidmore »reading software. Examples of experimental and commercialized capsule systems are presented with descriptions of their sensors, devices, and circuits for gastrointestinal health monitoring. We also show the recent research in biocompatible materials and batteries, edible electronics, and alternative energy sources for ingestible capsule systems. The results from clinical studies are discussed for the assessment of key performance indicators related to the safety and effectiveness of ingestible capsule procedures. Lastly, the present challenges and outlook are summarized with respect to the risks to health, clinical testing and approval process, and technology adoption by patients and clinicians.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2022
  3. A high-temperature retro-Diels–Alder reaction is accelerated by microwave (MW) heating to rates higher than expected based on Arrhenius kinetics and the measured temperature of the reaction mixture. Observations are consistent with selective MW heating of the polar reactant relative to other, less polar components of the reaction mixture.
  4. Abstract

    Metagenomic studies have revolutionized our understanding of the metabolic potential of uncultured microorganisms in various ecosystems. However, many of these genomic predictions have yet to be experimentally tested, and the functional expression of genomic potential often remains unaddressed. In order to obtain a more thorough understanding of cell physiology, novel techniques capable of testing microbial metabolism under close to in situ conditions must be developed. Here, we provide a benchmark study to demonstrate that bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) in combination with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing can be used to identify anabolically activemore »members of a microbial community incubated in the presence of various growth substrates or under changing physicochemical conditions. We applied this approach to a hot spring sediment microbiome from Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) and identified several microbes that changed their activity levels in response to substrate addition, including uncultured members of the phylaThaumarchaeota,Acidobacteria, andFervidibacteria. Because shifts in activity in response to substrate amendment or headspace changes are indicative of microbial preferences for particular growth conditions, results from this and future BONCAT-FACS studies could inform the development of cultivation media to specifically enrich uncultured microbes. Most importantly, BONCAT-FACS is capable of providing information on the physiology of uncultured organisms at as close to in situ conditions as experimentally possible.

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  5. A new attitude control system called Multifunctional Structures for Attitude Control (MSAC) is explored in this paper. This system utilizes deployable structures to provide fine pointing and large slewing capabilities for spacecraft. These deploy- able structures utilize distributed actuation, such as piezoelectric strain actuators, to control flexible structure vibration and motion. A related type of intelligent structure has been introduced recently for precision spacecraft attitude control, called Strain Actuated Solar Arrays (SASA). MSAC extends the capabilities of the SASA concept such that arbitrarily large angle slewing can be achieved at relatively fast rates, thereby providing a means to replace Reactionmore »Wheel Assemblies and Control Moment Gyroscopes. MSAC utilizes actuators bonded to deployable panels, such as solar arrays or other structural appendages, and bends the panels to use inertial coupling for small-amplitude, high-precision attitude control and active damping. In addition to presenting the concept, we introduce the operational principles for MSAC and develop a lumped low-fidelity Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) prototype and testbed to explore them. Some preliminary experimental results obtained using this prototype provided valuable insight into the design and performance of this new class of attitude control systems. Based on these results and developed principles, we have developed useful lumped-parameter models to use in further system refinement.« less
  6. After some initial false-starts, the international synthetic organic community is slowing warming to the possibility of certain strategic advantages of microwave heating in chemical synthesis.
  7. Microbial contamination in metalworking systems is a critical problem. This study determined the microbial communities in metalworking fluids (MWFs) from two machining shops and investigated the effect of quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) on biofilm growth. In both operations, biofilm-associated and planktonic microbial communities were dominated by Pseudomonadales (60.2–99.7%). Rapid recolonization was observed even after dumping spent MWFs and meticulous cleaning. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model biofilm organism, patulin (40 µM) and furanone C-30 (75 µM) were identified as effective QSI agents. Both agents had a substantially higher efficacy compared to α-amylase (extracellular polymeric substance degrading enzyme) and reducedmore »biofilm formation by 63% and 76%, respectively, in MWF when compared to untreated controls. Reduced production of putatively identified homoserine lactones and quinoline in MWF treated with QS inhibitors support the effect of QSI on biofilm formation. The results highlight the effectiveness of QSI as a potential strategy to eradicate biofilms in MWFs.« less