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  1. Abstract

    Many chemical processes depend non‐linearly on temperature. Gravity‐wave‐induced temperature perturbations have been shown to affect atmospheric chemistry, but accounting for this process in chemistry‐climate models has been a challenge because many gravity waves have scales smaller than the typical model resolution. Here, we present a method to account for subgrid‐scale orographic gravity‐wave‐induced temperature perturbations on the global scale for the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. Temperature perturbation amplitudesconsistent with the model's subgrid‐scale gravity wave parameterization are derived and then used as a sinusoidal temperature perturbation in the model's chemistry solver. Because of limitations in the parameterization, we explore scaling ofbetween 0.6 and 1 based on comparisons to altitude‐dependentdistributions of satellite and reanalysis data, where we discuss uncertainties. We probe the impact on the chemistry from the grid‐point to global scales, and show that the parameterization is able to represent mountain wave events as reported by previous literature. The gravity waves for example, lead to increased surface area densities of stratospheric aerosols. This increases chlorine activation, with impacts on the associated chemical composition. We obtain large local changes in some chemical species (e.g., active chlorine, NOx, N2O5) which are likely to be important for comparisons to airborne or satellite observations, but the changes to ozone loss are more modest. This approach enables the chemistry‐climate modeling community to account for subgrid‐scale gravity wave temperature perturbations interactively, consistent with the internal parameterizations and are expected to yield more realistic interactions and better representation of the chemistry.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Tropical gravity waves that are generated by convection are generally too small in scale and too high in frequency to be resolved in global climate models, yet their drag forces drive the important global‐scale quasi‐biennial oscillation (QBO) in the lower stratosphere, and models rely on parameterizations of gravity wave drag to simulate the QBO. We compare detailed properties of tropical parameterized gravity waves in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 6 (WACCM6) with gravity waves observed by long‐duration superpressure balloons and also compare properties of parameterized convective latent heating with satellite data. Similarities and differences suggest that the WACCM6 parameterizations are excellent tools for representing tropical gravity waves, but the results also suggest detailed changes to the gravity wave parameterization tuning parameter assumptions that would bring the parameterized waves into much better agreement with observations. While WACCM6 currently includes only nonstationary gravity waves from convection, adding gravity waves generated by the steady component of the heating that are stationary relative to moving convective rain cells is likely to improve the simulation of the QBO in the model. The suggested changes have the potential to alleviate common biases in simulated QBO circulations in models.

     
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