Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to nonfederal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available March 1, 2026

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available August 26, 2025

We examine the utility of data on active and vacant residential addresses to inform local and timely monitoring and assessments of how areas impacted by wildfires and extreme weather events more broadly lose (or not) and subsequently recover (or not) their populations. Provided by the U.S. Postal Service to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and other users, these data are an underutilized and potentially valuable tool to study population change in disasteraffected areas for at least three reasons. First, as they are aggregated to the ZIP + 4 level, they permit highly local portraits of residential and, indirectly, of population change. Second, they are tabulated on a quarterly basis starting in 2010 through the most recent quarter, thereby allowing for timely assessments than other data sources. Third, one mechanism of population change—namely, underlying changes in residential occupancies and vacancies—is explicit in the data. Our findings show that these data are sufficient for detecting signals of residential and, indirectly, of population change during and after particularly damaging wildfires; however, there is also noticeable variation across cases that requires further investigations into, for example, the guidance the U.S. Postal Services provides its postal offices and carriers to classify addresses as vacant.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available August 1, 2025

Development of bioconjugation strategies to efficiently modify biomolecules is of key importance for fundamental and translational scientific studies. Cysteine Sarylation is an approach which is becoming more popular due to generally rapid kinetics and high chemoselectivity, as well as the strong covalently bonded Saryl linkage created in these processes. Organometallic approaches to cysteine Sarylation have been explored that feature many advantages compared to their more traditional organic counterparts. In this Viewpoint, progress in the use of Au(III) and Pd(II) oxidative addition (OA) complexes for stoichiometric cysteine Sarylation is presented and discussed. A focus is placed on understanding the rapid kinetics of these reactions under mild conditions, as well as the ability to generate biomolecular heterostructures. Potential avenues for further exploration are addressed and usefulness of these methods to the practitioner are emphasized in the discussion.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available July 17, 2025

Planar magnetic microswimmers are wellsuited for in vivo biomedical applications due to their costeffective mass production through standard photolithography techniques. The precise control of their motion in diverse environments is a critical aspect of their application. This study demonstrates the control of these swimmers individually and as a swarm, exploring navigation through channels and showcasing their functional capabilities for future biomedical settings. We also introduce the capability of microswimmers for surface motion, complementing their traditional fluidbased propulsion and extending their functionality. Our research reveals that microswimmers with varying magnetization directions exhibit unique trajectory patterns, enabling complex swarm tasks. This study further delves into the behavior of these microswimmers in intricate environments, assessing their adaptability and potential for advanced applications. The findings suggest that these microswimmers could be pivotal in areas such as targeted drug delivery and precision medical procedures, marking significant progress in the biomedical and microrobotic fields and offering new insights into their control and behavior in diverse environments.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 27, 2025

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available June 27, 2025

The utilization of visible light to mediate chemical reactions in fluid solutions has applications that range from solar fuel production to medicine and organic synthesis. These reactions are typically initiated by electron transfer between a photoexcited dye molecule (a photosensitizer) and a redoxactive quencher to yield radical pairs that are intimately associated within a solvent cage. Many of these radicals undergo rapid thermodynamically favored “geminate” recombination and do not diffuse out of the solvent cage that surrounds them. Those that do escape the cage are useful reagents that may undergo subsequent reactions important to the abovementioned applications. The cage escape process and the factors that determine the yields remain poorly understood despite decades of research motivated by their practical and fundamental importance. Herein, stateoftheart research on lightinduced electron transfer and cage escape that has appeared since the seminal 1972 review by J. P. Lorand entitled “The Cage Effect” is reviewed. This review also provides some background for those new to the field and discusses the cage escape process of both homolytic bond photodissociation and bimolecular light induced electron transfer reactions. The review concludes with some key goals and directions for future research that promise to elevate this very vibrant field to even greater heights.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 12, 2025

Abstract We study the distribution over measurement outcomes of noisy random quantum circuits in the regime of low fidelity, which corresponds to the setting where the computation experiences at least one gatelevel error with probability close to one. We model noise by adding a pair of weak, unital, singlequbit noise channels after each twoqubit gate, and we show that for typical random circuit instances, correlations between the noisy output distribution
and the corresponding noiseless output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}$ shrink exponentially with the expected number of gatelevel errors. Specifically, the linear crossentropy benchmark$$p_{\text {ideal}}$$ ${p}_{\text{ideal}}$F that measures this correlation behaves as , where$$F=\text {exp}(2s\epsilon \pm O(s\epsilon ^2))$$ $F=\text{exp}(2s\u03f5\pm O\left(s{\u03f5}^{2}\right))$ is the probability of error per circuit location and$$\epsilon $$ $\u03f5$s is the number of twoqubit gates. Furthermore, if the noise is incoherent—for example, depolarizing or dephasing noise—the total variation distance between the noisy output distribution and the uniform distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}$ decays at precisely the same rate. Consequently, the noisy output distribution can be approximated as$$p_{\text {unif}}$$ ${p}_{\text{unif}}$ . In other words, although at least one local error occurs with probability$$p_{\text {noisy}}\approx Fp_{\text {ideal}}+ (1F)p_{\text {unif}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}\approx F{p}_{\text{ideal}}+(1F){p}_{\text{unif}}$ , the errors are scrambled by the random quantum circuit and can be treated as global white noise, contributing completely uniform output. Importantly, we upper bound the average total variation error in this approximation by$$1F$$ $1F$ . Thus, the “whitenoise approximation” is meaningful when$$O(F\epsilon \sqrt{s})$$ $O\left(F\u03f5\sqrt{s}\right)$ , a quadratically weaker condition than the$$\epsilon \sqrt{s} \ll 1$$ $\u03f5\sqrt{s}\ll 1$ requirement to maintain high fidelity. The bound applies if the circuit size satisfies$$\epsilon s\ll 1$$ $\u03f5s\ll 1$ , which corresponds to only$$s \ge \Omega (n\log (n))$$ $s\ge \Omega (nlog(n\left)\right)$logarithmic depth circuits, and if, additionally, the inverse error rate satisfies , which is needed to ensure errors are scrambled faster than$$\epsilon ^{1} \ge {\tilde{\Omega }}(n)$$ ${\u03f5}^{1}\ge \stackrel{~}{\Omega}\left(n\right)$F decays. The whitenoise approximation is useful for salvaging the signal from a noisy quantum computation; for example, it was an underlying assumption in complexitytheoretic arguments that noisy random quantum circuits cannot be efficiently sampled classically, even when the fidelity is low. Our method is based on a map from secondmoment quantities in random quantum circuits to expectation values of certain stochastic processes for which we compute upper and lower bounds. 
We propose a novel deterministic method for preparing arbitrary quantum states. When our protocol is compiled into CNOT and arbitrary singlequbit gates, it prepares an$N$dimensional state in depth$O(\mathrm{log}(N))$and$\mathit{\text{spacetime allocation}}$(a metric that accounts for the fact that oftentimes some ancilla qubits need not be active for the entire circuit)$O(N)$, which are both optimal. When compiled into the$\{\mathrm{H},\mathrm{S},\mathrm{T},\mathrm{C}\mathrm{N}\mathrm{O}\mathrm{T}\}$gate set, we show that it requires asymptotically fewer quantum resources than previous methods. Specifically, it prepares an arbitrary state up to error$\u03f5$with optimal depth of$O(\mathrm{log}(N)+\mathrm{log}(1/\u03f5))$and spacetime allocation$O(N\mathrm{log}(\mathrm{log}(N)/\u03f5))$, improving over$O(\mathrm{log}(N)\mathrm{log}(\mathrm{log}(N)/\u03f5))$and$O(N\mathrm{log}(N/\u03f5))$, respectively. We illustrate how the reduced spacetime allocation of our protocol enables rapid preparation of many disjoint states with only constantfactor ancilla overhead –$O(N)$ancilla qubits are reused efficiently to prepare a product state of$w$$N$dimensional states in depth$O(w+\mathrm{log}(N))$rather than$O(w\mathrm{log}(N))$, achieving effectively constant depth per state. We highlight several applications where this ability would be useful, including quantum machine learning, Hamiltonian simulation, and solving linear systems of equations. We provide quantum circuit descriptions of our protocol, detailed pseudocode, and gatelevel implementation examples using Braket.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 15, 2025