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  1. Abstract Pine Island Ice Shelf (PIIS) buttresses the Pine Island Glacier, the key contributor to sea-level rise. PIIS has thinned owing to ocean-driven melting, and its calving front has retreated, leading to buttressing loss. PIIS melting depends primarily on the thermocline variability in its front. Furthermore, local ocean circulation shifts adjust heat transport within Pine Island Bay (PIB), yet oceanic processes underlying the ice front retreat remain unclear. Here, we report a PIB double-gyre that moves with the PIIS calving front and hypothesise that it controls ocean heat input towards PIIS. Glacial melt generates cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres near andmore »off PIIS, and meltwater outflows converge into the anticyclonic gyre with a deep-convex-downward thermocline. The double-gyre migrated eastward as the calving front retreated, placing the anticyclonic gyre over a shallow seafloor ridge, reducing the ocean heat input towards PIIS. Reconfigurations of meltwater-driven gyres associated with moving ice boundaries might be crucial in modulating ocean heat delivery to glacial ice.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Drake, John (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 27, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2022
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 27, 2022
  6. Abstract

    The massive expansion of US higher education after World War II is a sociological puzzle: a spectacular feat of state capacity-building in a highly federated polity. Prior scholarship names academic leaders as key drivers of this expansion, yet the conditions for the possibility and fate of their activity remain under-specified. We fill this gap by theorizing what Randall Collins first callededucational entrepreneurshipas a special kind of strategic action in the US polity. We argue that the cultural authority and organizational centrality of universities in the US national context combine with historical contingency to episodically produce conditions under which academicmore »credentials can be made viable solutions to social problems. We put our theorization to the test by revisiting and extending a paradigmatic case: the expansion of engineering education at Stanford University between 1945 and 1969. Invoking several contemporaneous and subsequent cases, we demonstrate the promise of theorizing educational expansion as an outcome of strategic action by specifically located actors over time.

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  7. Synopsis Most animals experience reproductive transitions in their lives; for example, reaching reproductive maturity or cycling in and out of breeding condition. Some reproductive transitions are abrupt, while others are more gradual. In most cases, changes in communication between the sexes follow the time course of these reproductive transitions and are typically thought to be coordinated by steroid hormones. We know a great deal about hormonal control of communication behaviors in birds and frogs, as well as the central neural control of these behaviors. There has also been significant interest in the effects of steroid hormones on central nervous systemmore »structures that control both the production and reception of communication signals associated with reproductive behaviors. However, peripheral sensory structures have typically received less attention, although there has been growing interest in recent years. It is becoming clear that peripheral sensory systems play an important role in reproductive communication, are plastic across reproductive conditions, and, in some cases, this plasticity may be mediated by steroid hormones. In this article, we discuss recent evidence for the role of peripheral auditory structures in reproductive communication in birds and frogs, the plasticity of the peripheral auditory system, and the role of steroid hormones in mediating the effects of the peripheral auditory system on reproductive communication. We focus on both seasonal and acute reproductive transitions, introduce new data on the role of hormones in modulating seasonal patterns, and make recommendations for future work.« less
  8. A nontrigonal phosphorus triamide ( 1 , P{N[ o -NMe-C 6 H 4 ] 2 }) is shown to catalyze C–H borylation of electron-rich heteroarenes with pinacolborane (HBpin) in the presence of a mild chloroalkane reagent. C–H borylation proceeds for a range of electron-rich heterocycles including pyrroles, indoles, and thiophenes of varied substitution. Mechanistic studies implicate an initial P–N cooperative activation of HBpin by 1 to give P -hydrido diazaphospholene 2 , which is diverted by Atherton–Todd oxidation with chloroalkane to generate P -chloro diazaphospholene 3 . DFT calculations suggest subsequent oxidation of pinacolborane by 3 generates chloropinacolborane (ClBpin) asmore »a transient electrophilic borylating species, consistent with observed substituent effects and regiochemical outcomes. These results illustrate the targeted diversion of established reaction pathways in organophosphorus catalysis to enable a new mode of main group-catalyzed C–H borylation.« less