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Fertilizers and pesticides have been widely used in agriculture production, causing polluted soil, water, and atmosphere. This study aims to quantify air emissions from pesticides and fertilizers applied for peanut production in Georgia during selected years (1991, 1999, 2004, 2013, and 2018). Specifically, the oral and dermal potential impacts from pesticide emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) impact from fertilizers to air were investigated. This study followed the ISO 14040 series standards for life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to assess six active ingredients (AIs) (2,4-DB, Bentazon, Chlorothalonil, Ethalfluralin, Paraquat, and Pendimethalin) and one greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide N2O). Their physical and chemical characteristics and the temporal scales greatly influenced the oral and dermal toxicity impacts. According to the low values obtained for Henry’s law (KH) and vapor pressure (VP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy butanoic (DB), Pendimethalin, and Chlorothalonil have a higher impact on the continental air scale. The effect factor (EF) from oral exposure was higher in 2,4-DB, Bentazon, and Pendimethalin than dermal exposure, according to the relatively low lethal dose (LD50) for oral exposure, while the EF of Ethalfluralin and Chlorothalonil was the same for oral and dermal exposure according to their similar LD50.
Life cycle impact assessment (LCA) provides a better understanding of the energy, water, and material input and evaluates any production system’s output impacts. LCA has been carried out on various crops and products across the world. Some countries, however, have none or only a few studies. Here, we present the results of a literature review, following the PRISMA protocol, of what has been done in LCA to help stakeholders in these regions to understand the environmental impact at different stages of a product. The published literature was examined using the Google Scholar database to synthesize LCA research on agricultural activities, and 74 studies were analyzed. The evaluated papers are extensively studied in order to comprehend the various impact categories involved in LCA. The study reveals that tomatoes and wheat were the major crops considered in LCA. The major environmental impacts, namely, human toxicity potential and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential, were the major focus. Furthermore, the most used impact methods were CML, ISO, and IPCC. It was also found that studies were most often conducted in the European sector since most models and databases are suited for European agri-food products. The literature review did not focus on a specific region or amore »