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  1. Abstract We construct a 3D shear velocity model of the Salt Lake Valley using Rayleigh waves excited by the 31 March 2020 Mw 6.5 central Idaho earthquake recorded on a 168-station temporary nodal geophone network and the 49-station permanent regional network. The temporary array—deployed in response to the March 18 Mw 5.7 Magna earthquake—serendipitously recorded clear surface waves between 10 and 20 s period from the Idaho event at ∼500 km epicentral distance, from which we measure both Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity (H/V ratio). In addition, we employ multicomponent earthquake coda cross correlation to extend the measurements down to 5 s period. Because Rayleigh wave ellipticity features outstanding shallow sensitivity, we invert for a 3D upper crust VS model of the Salt Lake Valley. Our model shows basin structure in general agreement with and complements the current Community Velocity Model, which is mostly constrained by borehole and gravity measurements. Our model thus provides critical information for future earthquake hazard assessment studies, which require detailed shallow velocity structure. 
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  2. Abstract We discuss general structural features of the Banning and Mission Creek strands (BF and MCF) of the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) in the Coachella Valley, based on ambient noise and earthquake wavefields recorded by a seismic array with >300 nodes. Earthquake P arrivals show rapid changes in waveform characteristics over 20–40 m zones that coincide with the surface BF and MCF. These variations indicate that the BF and MCF are high-impedance contrast interfaces—an observation supported by the presence of seismic reflections. Another prominent but more diffuse change in SSAF structure is found ∼1 km northeast of the BF. This feature has average-to-low arrival times (P and S) and ambient noise levels (at <30 Hz), and likely represents a relatively fast velocity block sandwiched between broader MCF and BF zones. The maximal arrival delays (P ∼0.1 s and S ∼0.25 s) and the highest ambient noise levels (>2 times median) are consistently observed southwest of the BF—a combined effect of Coachella Valley sediments and rock damage on that side. Immediately northeast of the MCF, large S minus P delays suggest a broad high VP/VS zone associated with asymmetric rock damage across the SSAF. This general overview shows the BF and MCF as mature but distinctly different fault zones. Future analyses will further clarify these and other SSAF features in greater detail. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract We image the shallow structure across the East Bench segment of the Wasatch fault system in Salt Lake City using ambient noise recorded by a month-long temporary linear seismic array of 32 stations. We first extract Rayleigh-wave signals between 0.4 and 1.1 s period using noise cross correlation. We then apply double beamforming to enhance coherent cross-correlation signals and at the same time measure frequency-dependent phase velocities across the array. For each location, based on available dispersion measurements, we perform an uncertainty-weighted least-squares inversion to obtain a 1D VS model from the surface to 400 m depth. We put all piece-wise continuous 1D models together to construct the final 2D VS model. The model reveals high velocities to the east of the Pleistocene Lake Bonneville shoreline reflecting thinner sediments and low velocities particularly in the top 200 m to the west corresponding to the Salt Lake basin sediments. In addition, there is an ∼400-m-wide low-velocity zone that narrows with depth adjacent to the surface trace of the East Bench fault, which we interpret as a fault-related damage zone. The damage zone is asymmetric, wider on the hanging wall (western) side and with greater velocity reduction. These results provide important constraints on normal-fault earthquake mechanics, Wasatch fault earthquake behavior, and urban seismic hazard in Salt Lake City. 
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  4. Abstract

    We analyze seismograms recorded by four arrays (B1–B4) with 100 m station spacing and apertures of 4–8 km that cross the surface rupture of the 2019 Mw 7.1 Ridgecrest earthquake. The arrays extend from B1 in the northwest to B4 in the southeast of the surface rupture. Delay times betweenPwave arrivals associated with ∼1,200 local earthquakes and four teleseismic events are used to estimate local velocity variations beneath the arrays. Both teleseismic and localPwaves travel faster on the northeast than the southwest side of the fault beneath arrays B1 and B4, but the velocity contrast is less reliably resolved at arrays B2 and B3. We identify several 1–2 km wide low‐velocity zones with much slower inner cores that amplifySwaveforms, inferred as damage zones, beneath each array. The damage zones at arrays B2 and B4 also generate fault‐zone head and trapped waves. An automated detector, based on peak ground velocities and durations of high‐amplitude waves, identifies candidate fault‐zone trapped waves (FZTWs) in a localized zone for ∼600 earthquakes at array B4. Synthetic waveform modeling of averaged FZTWs, generated by ∼30 events with high‐quality signals, indicates that the trapping structure at array B4 has a width of ∼300 m, depth of 3–5 km,Swave velocity reduction of ∼20% with respect to the surrounding rock,Q‐value of ∼30, andSwave velocity contrast of ∼4% across the fault (faster on the northeast side). The results show complex fault‐zone internal structures (velocity contrasts and low‐velocity zones) that vary along fault strike.

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  5. Abstract

    We present observations and modeling of spatial eigen‐functions of resonating waves within fault zone waveguide, using data recorded on a dense seismic array across the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in southern California. The array consists of 5‐Hz geophones that cross the SJFZ with ~10–30 m spacing at the Blackburn Saddle near the Hemet Stepover. Wavefield snapshots after theSwave arrival are consistent for more than 50 near‐fault events, suggesting that this pattern is controlled by the fault zone structure rather than source properties. Data from example event with high signal to noise ratio show three main frequency peaks at ~1.3, ~2.0, and ~2.8 Hz in the amplitude spectra of resonance waves averaged over stations near the fault. The data are modeled with analytical expressions for eigen‐functions of resonance waves in a low‐velocity layer (fault zone) between two quarter‐spaces. Using a grid search‐based method, we investigate the possible width of the waveguide, location within the array, and shear wave velocities of the media that fit well the resonance signal at ~1.3 Hz. The results indicate a ~300 m wide damaged fault zone layer with ~65%Swave velocity reduction compared to the host rock. The SW edge of the low‐velocity zone is near the mapped fault surface trace, indicating that the damage zone is asymmetrically located at the regionally faster NE crustal block. The imaging resolution of the fault zone structure can be improved by modeling fault zone resonance modes and trapped waves together.

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