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  1. Abstract We present new discoveries and results from long-term timing of 72 pulsars discovered in the Pulsar Arecibo L -band Feed Array (PALFA) survey, including precise determination of astrometric and spin parameters, and flux density and scatter broadening measurements at 1.4 GHz. Notable discoveries include two young pulsars (characteristic ages ∼30 kyr) with no apparent supernova remnant associations, three mode-changing, 12 nulling and two intermittent pulsars. We detected eight glitches in five pulsars. Among them is PSR J1939+2609, an apparently old pulsar (characteristic age ∼1 Gy), and PSR J1954+2529, which likely belongs to a newly emerging class of binary pulsars.more »The latter is the only pulsar among the 72 that is clearly not isolated: a nonrecycled neutron star with a 931 ms spin period in an eccentric ( e = 0.114) wide ( P b = 82.7 days) orbit with a companion of undetermined nature having a minimum mass of ∼0.6 M ⊙ . Since operations at Arecibo ceased in 2020 August, we give a final tally of PALFA sky coverage, and compare its 207 pulsar discoveries to the known population. On average, they are 50% more distant than other Galactic plane radio pulsars; PALFA millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have twice the dispersion measure per unit spin period than the known population of MSP in the plane. The four intermittent pulsars discovered by PALFA more than double the population of such objects, which should help to improve our understanding of pulsar magnetosphere physics. The statistics for these, rotating radio transients, and nulling pulsars suggest that there are many more of these objects in the Galaxy than was previously thought.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT The Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 3FGL J2039.6–5618 contains a periodic optical and X-ray source that was predicted to be a ‘redback’ millisecond pulsar (MSP) binary system. However, the conclusive identification required the detection of pulsations from the putative MSP. To better constrain the orbital parameters for a directed search for gamma-ray pulsations, we obtained new optical light curves in 2017 and 2018, which revealed long-term variability from the companion star. The resulting orbital parameter constraints were used to perform a targeted gamma-ray pulsation search using the Einstein@Home-distributed volunteer computing system. This search discovered pulsations with a periodmore »of 2.65 ms, confirming the source as a binary MSP now known as PSR J2039–5617. Optical light-curve modelling is complicated, and likely biased, by asymmetric heating on the companion star and long-term variability, but we find an inclination i ≳ 60°, for a low pulsar mass between $1.1\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot } \lt M_{\rm psr} \lt $ 1.6 M⊙, and a companion mass of 0.15–$0.22\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$, confirming the redback classification. Timing the gamma-ray pulsations also revealed significant variability in the orbital period, which we find to be consistent with quadrupole moment variations in the companion star, suggestive of convective activity. We also find that the pulsed flux is modulated at the orbital period, potentially due to inverse Compton scattering between high-energy leptons in the pulsar wind and the companion star’s optical photon field.« less
  3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced exercise, such as motorized FES-cycling, is commonly used in rehabilitation for lower limb movement disorders. A challenge in closed-loop FES control is the presence of an input delay between the application (and removal) of the electrical stimulus and the production of muscle force. Moreover, switching between motor control and FES control of various muscle groups can be destabilizing. This paper examines the development of a control method and state-dependent trigger condition to account for the time-varying input delayed response. Uniformly ultimately bounded tracking for a switched uncertain nonlinear dynamic system with input delays is achieved.
  4. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling provides a means of therapeutic exercise and functional restoration for people affected by neuromuscular disorders. A challenge in closed-loop FES control of coordinated motion is the presence of a potentially destabilizing input delay between the application of the electrical stimulation and the resulting muscle contraction. Moreover, switching amongst multiple actuators (e.g., between FES control of various muscle groups and a controlled electric motor) presents additional challenges for overall system stability. In this paper, a closed-loop controller is developed to yield exponential cadence tracking, despite an unknown input delay, switching between FES and motor onlymore »control, uncertain nonlinear dynamics, and additive disturbances. Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are used in a Lyapunov-based stability analysis to ensure exponential convergence for all time.« less