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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 16, 2022
  3. Due to its high theoretical energy density and relative abundancy of active materials, the magnesium–sulfur battery has attracted research attention in recent years. A closely related system, the lithium-sulfur battery, can suffer from serious self-discharge behavior. Until now, the self-discharge of Mg–S has been rarely addressed. Herein, we demonstrate for a wide variety of Mg–S electrolytes and conditions that Mg–S batteries also suffer from serious self-discharge. For a common Mg–S electrolyte, we identify a multi-step self-discharge pathway. Covalent S 8 diffuses to the metal Mg anode and is converted to ionic Mg polysulfide in a non-faradaic reaction. Mg polysulfides inmore »solution are found to be meta-stable, continuing to react and precipitate as solid magnesium polysulfide species during both storage and active use. Mg–S electrolytes from the early, middle, and state-of-the-art stages of the Mg–S literature are all found to enable the self-discharge. The self-discharge behavior is found to decrease first cycle discharge capacity by at least 32%, and in some cases up to 96%, indicating this is a phenomenon of the Mg–S chemistry that deserves focused attention.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 23, 2022
  4. The crystal structure of methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glycopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-mannopyranoside monohydrate, C 15 H 27 NO 11 ·H 2 O, was determined and its structural properties compared to those in a set of mono- and disaccharides bearing N -acetyl side-chains in βGlcNAc aldohexopyranosyl rings. Valence bond angles and torsion angles in these side chains are relatively uniform, but C—N (amide) and C—O (carbonyl) bond lengths depend on the state of hydrogen bonding to the carbonyl O atom and N—H hydrogen. Relative to N -acetyl side chains devoid of hydrogen bonding, those in which the carbonyl O atom serves as a hydrogen-bond acceptor display elongatedmore »C—O and shortened C—N bonds. This behavior is reproduced by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, indicating that the relative contributions of amide resonance forms to experimental C—N and C—O bond lengths depend on the solvation state, leading to expectations that activation barriers to amide cis – trans isomerization will depend on the polarity of the environment. DFT calculations also revealed useful predictive information on the dependencies of inter-residue hydrogen bonding and some bond angles in or proximal to β-(1→4) O -glycosidic linkages on linkage torsion angles ϕ and ψ. Hypersurfaces correlating ϕ and ψ with the linkage C—O—C bond angle and total energy are sufficiently similar to render the former a proxy of the latter.« less
  5. The crystal structure of methyl α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-2- O -acetyl-β-D-mannopyranoside monohydrate, C 15 H 26 O 12 ·H 2 O, ( II ), has been determined and the structural parameters for its constituent α-D-mannopyranosyl residue compared with those for methyl α-D-mannopyranoside. Mono- O -acetylation appears to promote the crystallization of ( II ), inferred from the difficulty in crystallizing methyl α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-mannopyranoside despite repeated attempts. The conformational properties of the O -acetyl side chain in ( II ) are similar to those observed in recent studies of peracetylated mannose-containing oligosaccharides, having a preferred geometry in which the C2—H2 bond eclipses the C=O bondmore »of the acetyl group. The C2—O2 bond in ( II ) elongates by ∼0.02 Å upon O -acetylation. The phi (φ) and psi (ψ) torsion angles that dictate the conformation of the internal O -glycosidic linkage in ( II ) are similar to those determined recently in aqueous solution by NMR spectroscopy for unacetylated ( II ) using the statistical program MA′AT , with a greater disparity found for ψ (Δ = ∼16°) than for φ (Δ = ∼6°).« less
  6. Rigid and topologically constrained ethylene cross-bridged tetraazamacrocycles have been increasingly utilised for thirty years as they form remarkably stable transition metal complexes for catalysis, biomedical imaging, and inorganic drug molecule applications. Extending these benefits to pentaazamacrocycles has been achieved and a first transition metal complex prepared and structurally characterized.