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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 10, 2024
  2. The redox non-innocent 2-isocyano-6,6′-biazulenic ligand platform exhibits reduction potential inversion and offers construction of molecular organometallic electron reservoirs with 2e-per-ligand reversible redox capacity.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2024
  3. Ethylene cross-bridged tetraazamacrocycles are known to produce kinetically stable transition metal complexes that can act as robust oxidation catalysts under harsh aqueous conditions. We have synthesized ligand analogs with single acetate pendant arms that act as pentadentate ligands to Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. These complexes have been synthesized and characterized, including the structural characterization of four Co and Cu complexes. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that multiple oxidation states are stabilized by these rigid, bicyclic ligands. Yet, redox potentials of the metal complexes are modified compared to the “parent” ligands due to the pendant acetate arm. Similarly, gains in kinetic stability under harsh acidic conditions, compared to parent complexes without the pendant acetate arm, were demonstrated by a half-life seven times longer for the cyclam copper complex. Due to the reversible, high oxidation states available for the Mn and Fe complexes, the Mn and Fe complexes were examined as catalysts for the bleaching of three commonly used pollutant model dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and Rhodamine B) in water with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The efficient bleaching of these dyes was observed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Atomically precise thiolate-protected gold nanomolecules have attracted interest due to their distinct electronic and chemical properties. The structure of these nanomolecules is important for understanding their peculiar properties. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of a 24-atom gold nanomolecule protected by 16 tert -butylthiolate ligands. The composition of Au 24 (S-C 4 H 9 ) 16 {poly[hexadecakis(μ- tert -butylthiolato)tetracosagold]} was confirmed by X-ray crystallography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). The nanomolecule was synthesized in a one-phase synthesis and crystallized from a hexane–ethanol layered solution. The X-ray structure confirms the 16-atom core protected by two monomeric and two trimeric staples with four bridging ligands. The Au 24 (S-C 4 H 9 ) 16 cluster follows the shell-closing magic number of 8. 
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  5. Abstract Microplastic particles (MPs) are ubiquitous across a wide range of aquatic habitats but determining an appropriate level of risk management is hindered by a poor understanding of environmental risk. Here, we introduce a risk management framework for aquatic ecosystems that identifies four critical management thresholds, ranging from low regulatory concern to the highest level of concern where pollution control measures could be introduced to mitigate environmental emissions. The four thresholds were derived using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach and the best available data from the peer-reviewed literature. This included a total of 290 data points extracted from 21 peer-reviewed microplastic toxicity studies meeting a minimal set of pre-defined quality criteria. The meta-analysis resulted in the development of critical thresholds for two effects mechanisms: food dilution with thresholds ranging from ~ 0.5 to 35 particles/L, and tissue translocation with thresholds ranging from ~ 60 to 4100 particles/L. This project was completed within an expert working group, which assigned high confidence to the management framework and associated analytical approach for developing thresholds, and very low to high confidence in the numerical thresholds. Consequently, several research recommendations are presented, which would strengthen confidence in quantifying threshold values for use in risk assessment and management. These recommendations include a need for high quality toxicity tests, and for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of action to better establish links to ecologically relevant adverse effects. 
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  6. Zn II and Fe II chloride complexes of a di(methylthiazolidinyl)pyridine ligand were deprotonated to form the corresponding thiolate complexes supported by redox-active iminopyridine moieties. The thiolate donor groups are nucleophilic and reactive toward oxidants, electrophiles, and protons, while the pendant thiazolidine rings are available for hydrogen bonding. Anion exchange with the weakly-coordinating triflate anion resulted in self-assembly of the iminopyridine complexes to form a trimeric [M 3 S 3 ] cluster. Hydrogen bonding closely associates anions with this trimetallic core. 
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  7. Co-crystal engineering is a promising method to create new classes of advanced materials. Co-crystal structure prediction is more challenging when one or more of the lattice constituents (tectons) are flexible molecules. This study reports four co-crystals that were prepared by mixing HAuCl 4 or HAuBr 4 with C 3 -symmetric tectons based on a 1,3,5-(methylacetamide)benzene scaffold. X-ray analysis of the co-crystals revealed the presence of three dominant supramolecular interactions; (a) hydrogen bonding between tecton amide NH residues and the AuX 4 − anion, (b) electrostatic stacking of the Au center against the tecton's π-electrons, (c) very short hydrogen bonds within a proton-bridged-carbonyls motif. Within all four co-crystals, the sterically-geared tecton was trapped in a high energy molecular conformation, which increased the number of favorable intermolecular interactions in the lattice. We infer from the results that the likelihood of high energy molecular conformations within a co-crystal increases if there are multiple dominant intermolecular interactions. Application of this generalizable rule should lead to improved crystal structure prediction. 
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  8. Tetraazamacrocycles, cyclic molecules with four nitrogen atoms, have long been known to produce highly stable transition metal complexes. Cross-bridging such molecules with two-carbon chains has been shown to enhance the stability of these complexes even further. This provides enough stability to use the resulting compounds in applications as diverse and demanding as aqueous, green oxidation catalysis all the way to drug molecules injected into humans. Although the stability of these compounds is believed to result from the increased rigidity and topological complexity imparted by the cross-bridge, there is insufficient experimental data to exclude other causes. In this study, standard organic and inorganic synthetic methods were used to produce unbridged dibenzyl tetraazamacrocycle complexes of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn that are analogues of known cross-bridged tetraazamacrocycles and their transition metal complexes to allow direct comparison of molecules that are identical except for the cross-bridge. The syntheses of the known tetraazamacrocycles and the new transition metal complexes were successful with high yields and purity. Initial chemical characterization of the complexes was conducted by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while cyclic voltammetry showed more marked differences in electronic properties from bridged versions. Direct comparison studies of the unbridged and bridged compounds’ kinetic stabilities, as demonstrated by decomposition using high acid concentration and elevated temperature, showed that the cyclen-based complex stability did not benefit from cross-bridging. This is likely due to poor complementarity with the Cu2+ ion while cyclam-based complexes benefited greatly. We conclude that ligand–metal complementarity must be maintained in order for the topological and rigidity constraints imparted by the cross-bridge to contribute significantly to complex robustness. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  9. D-Mannosamine hydrochloride (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-mannose hydrochloride), C 6 H 14 NO 5 + ·Cl − , (I), crystallized from a methanol/ethyl acetate/ n -hexane solvent mixture at room temperature in a 4 C 1 chair conformation that is slightly distorted towards the C3,O5 B form. A comparison of the structural parameters of (I) with the corresponding parameters in α-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, (II), and β-D-galactosamine hydrochloride, (III)/(III′), was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ionic hydrogen bonding on structural properties. Three types of ionic hydrogen bonds are present in the crystals of (I)–(III)/(III′), i.e. N + —H...O, N + —H...Cl − , and O—H...Cl − . The exocyclic structural parameters in (I), (II), and (III)/(III′) appear to be most influenced by this bonding, especially the exocyclic hydroxy groups, which adopt eclipsed conformations enabled by ionic hydrogen bonding to the chloride anion. Anomeric disorder was observed in crystals of (I), with an α:β ratio of 37:63. However, anomeric configuration appears to exert minimal structural effects; that is, bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles are essentially identical in both anomers. The observed disorder at the anomeric C atom of (I) appears to be caused by the presence of the chloride anion and atom O3 or O4 in proximal voids, which provide opportunities for hydrogen bonding to atom O1 in both axial and equatorial orientations. 
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  10. Oligomerization of light olefins has become an essential step to convert gaseous olefins to liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. Here, we report the synthesis and application of nickel single sites isolated on Wells Dawson polyoxometalate defects as stable and regenerable catalysts for ethylene oligomerization. 
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