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  1. D-Mannosamine hydrochloride (2-amino-2-deoxy-D-mannose hydrochloride), C 6 H 14 NO 5 + ·Cl − , (I), crystallized from a methanol/ethyl acetate/ n -hexane solvent mixture at room temperature in a 4 C 1 chair conformation that is slightly distorted towards the C3,O5 B form. A comparison of the structural parameters of (I) with the corresponding parameters in α-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, (II), and β-D-galactosamine hydrochloride, (III)/(III′), was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ionic hydrogen bonding on structural properties. Three types of ionic hydrogen bonds are present in the crystals of (I)–(III)/(III′), i.e. N + —H...O, N + —H...Cl − , and O—H...Clmore »− . The exocyclic structural parameters in (I), (II), and (III)/(III′) appear to be most influenced by this bonding, especially the exocyclic hydroxy groups, which adopt eclipsed conformations enabled by ionic hydrogen bonding to the chloride anion. Anomeric disorder was observed in crystals of (I), with an α:β ratio of 37:63. However, anomeric configuration appears to exert minimal structural effects; that is, bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles are essentially identical in both anomers. The observed disorder at the anomeric C atom of (I) appears to be caused by the presence of the chloride anion and atom O3 or O4 in proximal voids, which provide opportunities for hydrogen bonding to atom O1 in both axial and equatorial orientations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Methyl β-lactoside [methyl β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside] monohydrate, C 13 H 24 O 11 ·H 2 O, (I), was obtained via spontaneous transformation of methyl β-lactoside methanol solvate, (II), during air-drying. Cremer–Pople puckering parameters indicate that the β-D-Gal p (β-D-galactopyranosyl) and β-D-Glc p (β-D-glucopyranosyl) rings in (I) adopt slightly distorted 4 C 1 chair conformations, with the former distorted towards a boat form ( B C1,C4 ) and the latter towards a twist-boat form ( O5 S C2 ). Puckering parameters for (I) and (II) indicate that the conformation of the βGal p ring is slightly more affected than the βGlc p ringmore »by the solvomorphism. Conformations of the terminal O -glycosidic linkages in (I) and (II) are virtually identical, whereas those of the internal O -glycosidic linkage show torsion-angle changes of 6° in both C—O bonds. The exocyclic hydroxymethyl group in the βGal p residue adopts a gt conformation (C4′ anti to O6′) in both (I) and (II), whereas that in the βGlc p residue adopts a gg ( gauche – gauche ) conformation (H5 anti to O6) in (II) and a gt ( gauche – trans ) conformation (C4 anti to O6) in (I). The latter conformational change is critical to the solvomorphism in that it allows water to participate in three hydrogen bonds in (I) as opposed to only two hydrogen bonds in (II), potentially producing a more energetically stable structure for (I) than for (II). Visual inspection of the crystalline lattice of (II) reveals channels in which methanol solvent resides and through which solvent might exchange during solvomorphism. These channels are less apparent in the crystalline lattice of (I).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. Seven doubly 13 C-labeled isotopomers of methyl β- d -glucopyranoside, methyl β- d -xylopyranoside, methyl β- d -galactopyranoside, methyl β- d -galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β- d -glucopyranoside and methyl β- d -galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β- d -xylopyranoside were prepared, crystallized, and studied by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy to determine experimentally the dependence of 2 J C1,C3 values in aldopyranosyl rings on the C1–C2–O2–H torsion angle, θ 2 , involving the C2 carbon of the C1–C2–C3 coupling pathway. Using X-ray crystal structures to determine θ 2 in crystalline samples and by selecting compounds that exhibit a relatively wide range of θ 2more »values in the crystalline state, 2 J C1,C3 values measured in crystalline samples were plotted against θ 2 and the resulting plot compared to that obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For θ 2 values ranging from ∼90° to ∼240°, very good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical plots, providing strong validation of DFT-calculated spin-coupling dependencies on exocyclic C–O bond conformation involving the central carbon of geminal C–C–C coupling pathways. These findings provide new experimental evidence supporting the use of 2 J CCC values as non-conventional spin-coupling constraints in MA′AT conformational modeling of saccharides in solution, and the use of NMR spin-couplings not involving coupled hydroxyl hydrogens as indirect probes of C–O bond conformation. Solvomorphism was observed in crystalline βGal-(1→4)-βGlcOCH 3 wherein the previously-reported methanol solvate form was found to spontaneously convert to a monohydrate upon air-drying, leading to small but discernible conformational changes in, and a new crystalline form of, this disaccharide.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 20, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2022
  5. Isopropyl 3-deoxy-α-D- ribo -hexopyranoside (isopropyl 3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside), C 9 H 18 O 5 , (I), crystallizes from a methanol–ethyl acetate solvent mixture at room temperature in a 4 C 1 chair conformation that is slightly distorted towards the C5 S C1 twist-boat form. A comparison of the structural parameters in (I), methyl α-D-glucopyranoside, (II), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucitol (maltitol), (III), and 3-deoxy-α-D- ribo -hexopyranose (3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose), (IV), shows that most endocyclic and exocyclic bond lengths, valence bond angles and torsion angles in the aldohexopyranosyl rings are more affected by anomeric configuration, aglycone structure and/or the conformation of exocyclic substituents, such as hydroxymethyl groups, than bymore »monodeoxygenation at C3. The structural effects observed in the crystal structures of (I)–(IV) were confirmed though density functional theory (DFT) calculations in computed structures (I) c –(IV) c . Exocyclic hydroxymethyl groups adopt the gauche – gauche ( gg ) conformation (H5 anti to O6) in (I) and (III), and the gauche – trans ( gt ) conformation (C4 anti to O6) in (II) and (IV). The O -glycoside linkage conformations in (I) and (III) resemble those observed in disaccharides containing β-(1→4) linkages.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  6. Due to its high theoretical energy density and relative abundancy of active materials, the magnesium–sulfur battery has attracted research attention in recent years. A closely related system, the lithium-sulfur battery, can suffer from serious self-discharge behavior. Until now, the self-discharge of Mg–S has been rarely addressed. Herein, we demonstrate for a wide variety of Mg–S electrolytes and conditions that Mg–S batteries also suffer from serious self-discharge. For a common Mg–S electrolyte, we identify a multi-step self-discharge pathway. Covalent S 8 diffuses to the metal Mg anode and is converted to ionic Mg polysulfide in a non-faradaic reaction. Mg polysulfides inmore »solution are found to be meta-stable, continuing to react and precipitate as solid magnesium polysulfide species during both storage and active use. Mg–S electrolytes from the early, middle, and state-of-the-art stages of the Mg–S literature are all found to enable the self-discharge. The self-discharge behavior is found to decrease first cycle discharge capacity by at least 32%, and in some cases up to 96%, indicating this is a phenomenon of the Mg–S chemistry that deserves focused attention.« less
  7. The crystal structure of methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glycopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-mannopyranoside monohydrate, C 15 H 27 NO 11 ·H 2 O, was determined and its structural properties compared to those in a set of mono- and disaccharides bearing N -acetyl side-chains in βGlcNAc aldohexopyranosyl rings. Valence bond angles and torsion angles in these side chains are relatively uniform, but C—N (amide) and C—O (carbonyl) bond lengths depend on the state of hydrogen bonding to the carbonyl O atom and N—H hydrogen. Relative to N -acetyl side chains devoid of hydrogen bonding, those in which the carbonyl O atom serves as a hydrogen-bond acceptor display elongatedmore »C—O and shortened C—N bonds. This behavior is reproduced by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, indicating that the relative contributions of amide resonance forms to experimental C—N and C—O bond lengths depend on the solvation state, leading to expectations that activation barriers to amide cis – trans isomerization will depend on the polarity of the environment. DFT calculations also revealed useful predictive information on the dependencies of inter-residue hydrogen bonding and some bond angles in or proximal to β-(1→4) O -glycosidic linkages on linkage torsion angles ϕ and ψ. Hypersurfaces correlating ϕ and ψ with the linkage C—O—C bond angle and total energy are sufficiently similar to render the former a proxy of the latter.« less