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    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) traces the emission of star-forming galaxies throughout all cosmic epochs. Breaking down the contribution from galaxies at different redshifts to the observed CIB maps would allow us to probe the history of star formation. In this paper, we cross-correlate maps of the CIB with galaxy samples covering the range z ≲ 2 to measure the bias-weighted star-formation rate (SFR) density 〈bρSFR〉 as a function of time in a model independent way. This quantity is complementary to direct measurements of the SFR density ρSFR, giving a higher weight to more massive haloes, and thus provides additional information to constrain the physical properties of star formation. Using cross-correlations of the CIB with galaxies from the DESI Legacy Survey and the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we obtain high signal-to-noise ratio measurements of 〈bρSFR〉, which we then use to place constraints on halo-based models of the star-formation history. We fit halo-based SFR models to our data and compare the recovered ρSFR with direct measurements of this quantity. We find a qualitatively good agreement between both independent data sets, although the details depend on the specific halo model assumed. This constitutes a useful robustness test for the physical interpretation of the CIB, and reinforces the role of CIB maps as valuable astrophysical probes of the large-scale structure. We report our measurements of 〈bρSFR〉 as well as a thorough account of their statistical uncertainties, which can be used to constrain star-formation models in combination with other data.

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    Recent works have shown that weak lensing magnification must be included in upcoming large-scale structure analyses, such as for the Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), to avoid biasing the cosmological results. In this work, we investigate whether including magnification has a positive impact on the precision of the cosmological constraints, as well as being necessary to avoid bias. We forecast this using an LSST mock catalogue and a halo model to calculate the galaxy power spectra. We find that including magnification has little effect on the precision of the cosmological parameter constraints for an LSST galaxy clustering analysis, where the halo model parameters are additionally constrained by the galaxy luminosity function. In particular, we find that for the LSST gold sample (i < 25.3) including weak lensing magnification only improves the galaxy clustering constraint on Ωm by a factor of 1.03, and when using a very deep LSST mock sample (i < 26.5) by a factor of 1.3. Since magnification predominantly contributes to the clustering measurement and provides similar information to that of cosmic shear, this improvement would be reduced for a combined galaxy clustering and shear analysis. We also confirm that not modelling weak lensing magnification will catastrophically bias the cosmological results from LSST. Magnification must therefore be included in LSST large-scale structure analyses even though it does not significantly enhance the precision of the cosmological constraints.

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  5. Abstract

    The Einstein Telescope (ET), the European project for a third-generation gravitational-wave detector, has a reference configuration based on a triangular shape consisting of three nested detectors with 10 km arms, where each detector has a 'xylophone' configuration made of an interferometer tuned toward high frequencies, and an interferometer tuned toward low frequencies and working at cryogenic temperature. Here, we examine the scientific perspectives under possible variations of this reference design. We perform a detailed evaluation of the science case for a single triangular geometry observatory, and we compare it with the results obtained for a network of two L-shaped detectors (either parallel or misaligned) located in Europe, considering different choices of arm-length for both the triangle and the 2L geometries. We also study how the science output changes in the absence of the low-frequency instrument, both for the triangle and the 2L configurations. We examine a broad class of simple 'metrics' that quantify the science output, related to compact binary coalescences, multi-messenger astronomy and stochastic backgrounds, and we then examine the impact of different detector designs on a more specific set of scientific objectives.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
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    Obtaining accurately calibrated redshift distributions of photometric samples is one of the great challenges in photometric surveys like LSST, Euclid, HSC, KiDS, and DES. We present an inference methodology that combines the redshift information from the galaxy photometry with constraints from two-point functions, utilizing cross-correlations with spatially overlapping spectroscopic samples, and illustrate the approach on CosmoDC2 simulations. Our likelihood framework is designed to integrate directly into a typical large-scale structure and weak lensing analysis based on two-point functions. We discuss efficient and accurate inference techniques that allow us to scale the method to the large samples of galaxies to be expected in LSST. We consider statistical challenges like the parametrization of redshift systematics, discuss and evaluate techniques to regularize the sample redshift distributions, and investigate techniques that can help to detect and calibrate sources of systematic error using posterior predictive checks. We evaluate and forecast photometric redshift performance using data from the CosmoDC2 simulations, within which we mimic a DESI-like spectroscopic calibration sample for cross-correlations. Using a combination of spatial cross-correlations and photometry, we show that we can provide calibration of the mean of the sample redshift distribution to an accuracy of at least 0.002(1 + z), consistent with the LSST-Y1 science requirements for weak lensing and large-scale structure probes.

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