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  1. During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359, Site U1471 was cored in the Maldives Inner Sea, where the sediments consist of hemipelagic carbonate drifts containing a mixture of components exported from the atolls and pelagic origin (periplatform ooze). The cores from this site provide a complete and uninterrupted record of the sedimentary and paleoceanographic changes in the Maldives Inner Sea from the Miocene through the Pleistocene. Here, we present the bulk sediment total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and calcium carbonate contents for the uppermost 21 m of the composite splice of Site U1471.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2023
  2. The Iberian margin is a well-known source of rapidly accumulating sediment that contains a high-fidelity record of millennial climate variability (MCV) for the late Pleistocene. The late Sir Nicholas (Nick) Shackleton demonstrated that piston cores from the region can be correlated precisely to polar ice cores in both hemispheres. Moreover, the narrow continental shelf off Portugal results in the rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment, thereby permitting correlation of marine and ice core records to European terrestrial sequences. Few places exist in the world where such detailed marine-ice-terrestrial linkages are possible. The continuity, high sedimentation rates, andmore »fidelity of climate signals preserved in Iberian margin sediments make this region a prime target for ocean drilling. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow), one of the sites proposed here was drilled to a total depth of 155.9 meters below seafloor in multiple holes. At Site U1385 (the “Shackleton site”) a complete record of hemipelagic sedimentation was recovered for the last 1.45 My corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 47 with sedimentation rates of 10–20 cm/ky. Preliminary results from Site U1385 demonstrate the great promise of the Iberian margin to yield long records of millennial-scale climate change and land–sea comparisons. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 397 will extend this remarkable sediment archive through the Pliocene and expand the depth range of available sites by drilling additional sequences in water depths from 1304 to 4686 meters below sea level (mbsl). This depth transect is designed to complement those sites drilled during Expedition 339 (560–1073 mbsl) where sediment was recovered at intermediate water depth under the influence of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Together, the sites recovered during Expeditions 339 and 397 will constitute a complete depth transect with which to study past variability of all the major subsurface water masses of the eastern North Atlantic. Because most of the mass, thermal inertia, and carbon in the ocean-atmosphere system is contained in the deep ocean, well-placed depth transects in each of the major ocean basins are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of glacial–interglacial cycles and MCV. We have identified four primary sites (SHACK-4C, SHACK-10B, SHACK-11B, and SHACK-14A) at which multiple holes will be drilled to ensure complete recovery of the stratigraphic sections at each site, ranging in age from the latest Miocene to Holocene. Building on the success of Site U1385 and given the seminal importance of the Iberian margin for paleoclimatology and marine-ice-terrestrial correlations, the cores recovered during Expedition 397 will provide present and future generations of paleoceanographers with the raw material needed to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate at high temporal resolution for the entire Quaternary and Pliocene.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. The opening of the North Atlantic about 56 My ago was associated with the emplacement of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, including the deposition of voluminous extrusive basaltic successions and intrusion of magma into the surrounding sedimentary basins. The mid-Norwegian Margin is a global type example of such volcanic rifted margins and is well suited for scientific drilling with its thin sediment cover and good data coverage. During International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 396, 21 boreholes were drilled at 10 sites in five different geological settings on this volcanic margin. The boreholes sampled a multitude of igneous and sedimentary settingsmore »ranging from lava flow fields to hydrothermal vent complexes, along with thick successions of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata. A comprehensive suite of wireline logs was collected in eight boreholes. The main goals of the expedition were to provide constraints for geodynamic models to test different hypotheses that can explain the rapid emplacement of large igneous provinces and the hypothesis that the associated Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum was caused by hydrothermal release of carbon in response to magmatic intrusions. Successful drilling, combined with high core recovery of target intervals of all nine primary sites and one additional alternate site, should allow us to achieve these goals during postcruise work.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the world’s strongest zonal current system, connects all three major ocean basins of the global ocean and therefore integrates and responds to global climate variability. Its flow is largely driven by strong westerly winds and is constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage. Fresh and cold Pacific surface and intermediate water flowing through the Drake Passage (cold-water route) and warm Indian Ocean water masses flowing through the Agulhas region (warm-water route) are critical for the South Atlantic contribution to Meridional Overturning Circulation changes. Furthermore, physical and biological processes associated with the ACC affectmore »the strength of the ocean carbon pump and therefore are critical to feedbacks linking atmospheric CO2 concentrations, ocean circulation, and climate/cryosphere on a global scale. In contrast to the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the ACC, and with the exception of drill cores from the Antarctic continental margin and off New Zealand, there are no deep-sea drilling paleoceanographic records from the Pacific sector of the ACC. To advance our understanding of Miocene to Holocene atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere dynamics in the Pacific and their implications for regional and global climate and atmospheric CO2, International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 383 recovered sedimentary sequences at (1) three sites in the central South Pacific (CSP) (U1539, U1540, and U1541), (2) two sites at the Chilean margin (U1542 and U1544), and (3) one site from the pelagic eastern South Pacific (U1543) close to the entrance to the Drake Passage. Because of persistently stormy conditions and the resulting bad weather avoidance, we were not successful in recovering the originally planned Proposed Site CSP-3A in the Polar Frontal Zone of the CSP. The drilled sediments at Sites U1541 and U1543 reach back to the late Miocene, and those at Site U1540 reach back to the early Pliocene. High sedimentation rate sequences reaching back to the early Pleistocene (Site U1539) and the late Pleistocene (Sites U1542 and U1544) were recovered in both the CSP and at the Chilean margin. Taken together, the sites represent a depth transect from ~1100 m at Chilean margin Site U1542 to ~4070 m at CSP Site U1539 and allow investigation of changes in the vertical structure of the ACC, a key issue for understanding the role of the Southern Ocean in the global carbon cycle. The sites are located at latitudes and water depths where sediments will allow the application of a wide range of siliciclastic-, carbonate-, and opal-based proxies to address our objectives of reconstructing, with unprecedented stratigraphic detail, surface to deep-ocean variations and their relation to atmosphere and cryosphere changes.« less
  5. Volcanic passive margins are an end-member of continental rifted margins and are believed to originate from the breakup of a continent under the influence of a mantle plume. In spite of 40 y of research into this phenomenon, it is still unknown how excess magmatism is produced and what controls its surprisingly short duration. Expedition 396 will revisit the mid-Norwegian margin 36 y after Ocean Drilling Program Leg 104. It will provide the necessary observations to parameterize comprehensive 3-D numerical models. These will allow us to identify the relative importance of different tectonomagmatic processes. Furthermore, drilling will test the predictionsmore »of volcanic seismic facies models and elucidate the role of breakup volcanism in rapid global warming. Secondary objectives relate to the onset of the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic Gateway and the potential to use the breakup basalt province to store carbon dioxide on industrial scales. To this end, Expedition 396 will attempt to drill nine boreholes on the Vøring and Møre margins. They will target the breakup volcanic successions as well as the overlying postrift sediments and the underlying synrift sediments. In conjunction with the wealth of reflection seismic data collected by the hydrocarbon industry during the past 40 y, the new borehole information will provide an unprecedented picture of the formation of a large igneous province during the opening of an ocean basin.« less
  6. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the world’s strongest zonal current system that connects all three major ocean basins of the global ocean and therefore integrates and responds to global climate variability. Its flow is largely driven by strong westerly winds and constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage. Transport of fresh and cold surface and intermediate water masses through the Drake Passage (cold-water route) strongly affects the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation together with the inflow of Indian Ocean water masses (warm-water route). Both oceanographic corridors are critical for the South Atlantic contribution to Meridional Overturning Circulation changes.more »In contrast to the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the ACC, and with the exception of drill cores from the Antarctic continental margin and off New Zealand, the Pacific sector of the ACC lacks information on its Cenozoic paleoceanography from deep-sea drilling records. To advance our knowledge and understanding of Miocene to Holocene atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere dynamics in the Pacific and their implications for regional and global climate and atmospheric CO2, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 383 recovered sedimentary sequences at (1) three sites located in the central South Pacific (U1539, U1540, and U1541), (2) two sites at the Chile margin (U1542 and U1544), and (3) one site from the pelagic eastern South Pacific (U1543) close to the entrance to the Drake Passage. Because of persistently stormy conditions and the resulting bad weather avoidance, we were not successful in recovering the originally planned Proposed Site CSP-3A in the central South Pacific in the Polar Frontal Zone. The drilled sediments at Sites U1541 and U1543 reach back to the late Miocene, and those at Site U1540 reach back to the early Pliocene. High sedimentary rate Pleistocene sedimentary sequences were drilled both in the central South Pacific (Site U1539) and along the Chile margin. Taken together, the sites represent a depth transect from ~1100 m at the Chile margin site (U1542) to ~4070 m in the central South Pacific (Site U1539) and allow investigation of changes in the vertical structure of the ACC, a key issue for understanding the role of the Southern Ocean in the global carbon cycle. The sites are located at latitudes and water depths where sediments will allow the application of a wide range of siliciclastic-, carbonate-, and opal-based proxies to address our objectives of reconstructing with unprecedented stratigraphic detail surface to deep-ocean variations and their relation to atmosphere and cryosphere changes through stadial to interstadial, glacial to interglacial, and warmer than present time intervals.« less
  7. The South Atlantic Transect (SAT) is a multidisciplinary scientific ocean drilling project that comprises two International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions (390, October–December 2020, and 393, April–June 2021). These expeditions will recover complete sedimentary sections and the upper ~250 m of the underlying oceanic crust along a slow/intermediate spreading rate Mid-Atlantic Ridge crustal flow line at ~31°S. The sediments along this transect were originally spot cored more than 50 y ago during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 3 to help verify the theories of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. Given dramatic advances in drilling technology and analytical capabilities since Legmore »3, many high-priority scientific objectives can be addressed by revisiting the transect. The SAT expeditions will target six primary sites on 7, 15, 31, 49, and 61 Ma ocean crust, which will fill critical gaps in our sampling of intact in situ ocean crust with regards to crustal age, spreading rate, and sediment thickness. These sections are required to investigate the history of the low-temperature hydrothermal interactions between the aging ocean crust and the evolving South Atlantic Ocean and quantify past hydrothermal contributions to global geochemical cycles. The transect traverses the previously unexplored sediment- and basalt-hosted deep biosphere beneath the South Atlantic Gyre from which samples are essential to refine global biomass estimates and investigate microbial ecosystems’ responses to variable conditions in a low-energy gyre and aging ocean crust. The drilling operations will include installation of reentry cones and casing to establish legacy boreholes for future basement hydrothermal and microbiological experiments. The transect is also located near World Ocean Circulation Experiment Line A10, providing access to records of carbonate chemistry and deepwater mass properties across the western South Atlantic through key Cenozoic intervals of elevated atmospheric CO2 and rapid climate change. Reconstruction of the history of the deep western boundary current and deepwater formation in the Atlantic basins will yield crucial data to test hypotheses regarding the role of evolving thermohaline circulation patterns in climate change and the effects of tectonic gateways and climate on ocean acidification.« less
  8. This addendum to the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 383 Scientific Prospectus (Dynamics of the Pacific Antarctic Circumpolar Current; Lamy et al., 2018) addresses the results of the safety review of 10 new proposed drill sites by the IODP Environmental Protection and Safety Panel (EPSP) on 4–6 September 2018 and a change to the operations plan and the end port call for Expedition 383. Because of an adjustment to the R/V JOIDES Resolution 2018–2019 operations schedule, the end port for Expedition 383 has changed from Valparaiso, Chile, to Punta Arenas, Chile. Therefore, at the time of publication of thismore »addendum, the expedition is scheduled to start and end in Punta Arenas, Chile. The dates of the expedition remain unchanged from the original Expedition 383 Scientific Prospectus (Lamy et al., 2018), from 20 May to 20 July 2019. The change in port reduces the distance and hence the transit time between the last drill site in the central South Pacific and the port in Chile, providing ~3 additional days for scientific drilling operations. For that reason, a new proposed primary site (CSP-7A) in the central South Pacific has been added to the original operations plan from Lamy et al. (2018), bringing the total number of primary sites planned for Expedition 383 to seven (Figures F1, F2, F3, F4). The current operations plan and time estimates include 5 days of port call activities, 38.2 days of operations, and 17.7 days of transit.« less
  9. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 368 is the second of two consecutive cruises that form the South China Sea Rifted Margin program. Expeditions 367 and 368 share the common key objectives of testing scientific hypotheses of breakup of the northern South China Sea (SCS) margin and comparing its rifting style and history to other nonvolcanic or magma-poor rifted margins. Four primary sites were selected for the overall program: one in the outer margin high (OMH) and three seaward of the OMH on distinct, margin-parallel basement ridges. These three ridges are informally labeled A, B, and C. They are located withinmore »the continent–ocean transition (COT) zone ranging from the OMH to the interpreted steady-state oceanic crust (Ridge C) of the SCS. The main scientific objectives include 1. Determining the nature of the basement within crustal units across the COT of the SCS that are critical to constrain style of rifting, 2. Constraining the time interval from initial crustal extension and plate rupture to the initial generation of igneous ocean crust, 3. Constraining vertical crustal movements during breakup, and 4. Examining the nature of igneous activity from rifting to seafloor spreading. In addition, the sediment cores from the drill sites targeting primarily tectonic and basement objectives will provide information on the Cenozoic regional environmental development of the Southeast Asia margin. Expedition 368 was planned to drill at two primary sites (U1501 and U1503) at the OMH and Ridge C, respectively. However, based on drilling results from Expedition 367, Expedition 368 chose to insert an alternate site on Ridge A (Site U1502). In total, the expedition completed operations at four sites (U1501, U1502, U1504, and U1505). Site U1503, however, was not completed beyond casing to 990 m because of mechanical problems with the drilling equipment that limited the expedition from 25 May 2017 to the end of the expedition to operate with a drill string not longer than 3400 m. New alternate Site U1504 proposed during Expedition 367 met this condition. Site U1505 also met the operational constraints of the 3400 m drill string (total) and was an alternate site for the already drilled Site U1501. At Site U1501, we cored to 697.1 m in 9.4 days, with 78.5% recovery. We also drilled ahead for 433.5 m in Hole U1501D and then logged downhole data from 78.3 to 399.3 m. In 19.3 days at Site U1502, we penetrated 1679.0 m, set 723.7 m of casing and cored a total of 576.3 m with 53.5% recovery, and collected downhole log data from 785.3 to 875.3 m and seismic data through the 10¾ inch casing. At Site U1503, we penetrated 995.1 m, setting 991.5 m of 10¾ inch casing, but no cores were taken. At Site U1504, we took 40 rotary core barrel (RCB) cores over two holes. The cored interval between both holes was 277.3 m with 26.8% recovery. An 88.2 m interval was drilled in Hole U1504B. At Site U1505, we cored 668.0 m with 101.1% recovery. Logging data was collected from 80.1 to 341.2 m. Operations at this site covered 6.1 days. Except for Site U1505, we drilled to acoustic basement, which prior to the expedition, except for Site U1501, had been interpreted to be crystalline basement. A total of 6.65 days were lost due to mechanical breakdown or waiting on spare supplies for repair of drilling equipment. At Site U1501 on the OMH, coring ~45 m into the acoustic basement sampled highly lithified sandstone to conglomerate of presumed Mesozoic age overlain by siliciclastic Eocene pre- to synrift sediments of Oligocene age and topped by primarily carbonaceous postrift sediments of early Miocene to Pleistocene age. Site U1502 on Ridge A was cased to 723.7 m. At this site, we recovered 180 m of hydrothermally altered brecciated basalts comprising sheet and pillow lavas below deep-marine sediments of Oligocene to late Miocene age. Coring was not performed within the upper 380 m (~Pliocene–Pleistocene) at Site U1502. At Site U1503 on Ridge C, 991.5 m of casing was installed in preparation for the planned deep drilling to ~1800 m, but no coring was performed due to mechanical failures, and the site was abandoned without further activity. Coring at Site U1504 on the OMH ~45 km east of Site U1501 recovered metamorphic schist to gneiss (greenschist facies) below late Eocene (?) carbonate rocks (partly reef debris) and early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. At Site U1505, we cored to 480.15 m through Pleistocene to late Oligocene mainly carbonaceous ooze followed at depth by early Oligocene to late Eocene siliciclastic sediments. Efforts were made at every drill site to correlate the core with the seismic data and seismic stratigraphic unconformities interpreted within the Eocene to Plio–Pleistocene sedimentary sequence prior to drilling. The predrilling interpretation of ages of these unconformities was in general confirmed by drilling results. As a result of the constraints on the length of drill string that could be deployed during the later part of Expedition 368, the secondary expedition objectives addressing the environmental history of the SCS and Southeast Asia received more focus than planned because these sites are located in shallower water depths and required less penetration depth. This forced change in emphasis, however, was without fatal consequences for the primary tectonic objectives. The two expeditions together provided solid evidence for a process of breakup that included vigorous synrift magmatism as opposed to the often-favored interpretation of the SCS margin as a magma-starved margin.« less
  10. The primary objectives of International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 367/368 to the northern South China Sea (SCS) margin were to (1) examine its history of continental breakup and (2) compare it with other nonvolcanic or magma-poor rifted margins with the broader goal of testing models for continental breakup. A secondary objective was to further our understanding of the paleoceanographic and environmental development of the SCS and southeast Asia during the Cenozoic. Four primary sites were selected for the overall program: one in the outer margin high (OMH) and three seaward of the OMH on distinct, margin-parallel basement ridges. Thesemore »three ridges are informally labeled A, B, and C and are located in the continent–ocean transition (COT) zone ranging from the OMH to the interpreted steady-state oceanic crust (Ridge C) of the SCS. The main scientific objectives include the following: Determining the nature of the basement in crustal units across the COT of the SCS that are critical to constrain style of rifting, Constraining the time interval from initial crustal extension and plate rupture to the initial generation of igneous ocean crust, Constraining vertical crustal movements during breakup, and Examining the nature of igneous activity from rifting to seafloor spreading. In addition, the sediment cores from the drill sites targeting primarily tectonic and basement objectives will provide information on the Cenozoic regional environmental development of the Southeast Asia margin. Site U1499 on Ridge A and Site U1500 on Ridge B were drilled during Expedition 367. Expedition 368 was planned to drill at two primary sites (U1501 and U1503) at the OMH and Ridge C, respectively, but based on drilling results from Expedition 367, Expedition 368 chose to insert an alternate site on Ridge A (Site U1502). In addition, Expedition 368 added two more sites on the OMH (Sites U1504 and U1505). Expedition 367/368 completed operations at six of the seven sites (U1499–U1502, U1504, and U1505). Site U1503, however, was not completed beyond casing without coring to 990 m because of mechanical problems with the drilling equipment that prevented the expedition, after 25 May 2017, from operating with a drill string longer than 3400 m. New alternate Site U1504, proposed during Expedition 367, met this condition. Original Site U1505 also met the operational constraints of the 3400 m drill string (total) and was an alternate site for the already-drilled Site U1501. At Site U1499, we cored to 1081.8 m in 22.1 days with 52% recovery and then logged downhole data from 655 to 1020 m. In 31 days at Site U1500, we penetrated to 1529 m, cored a total of 1012.8 m with 37% recovery, and collected log data from 842 to 1133 m. At Site U1501, we cored to 697.1 m in 9.4 days with 78.5% recovery. We also drilled ahead for 433.5 m in Hole U1501D and then logged downhole data from 78.3 to 399.3 m. In 19.3 days at Site U1502, we penetrated 1679.0 m in Holes U1502A (758 m) and U1502B (921 m), set 723.7 m of casing and cored a total of 576.3 m with 53.5% recovery, and collected downhole log data from 785.3 to 875.3 m and seismic data through the 10¾ inch casing. At Site U1503, we penetrated 995.1 m and set 991.5 m of 10¾ inch casing, but no cores were taken because of a mechanical problem with the drawworks. At Site U1504, we took 40 rotary core barrel (RCB) cores over two holes. The cored interval between both holes was 277.3 m with 26.8% recovery. An 88.2 m interval was drilled in Hole U1504B. At Site U1505, we cored 668.0 m with 101.1% recovery. Logging data was collected from 80.1 to 341.2 m. Operations at this site covered 6.1 days. Except for Sites U1503 and U1505, all sites were drilled to acoustic basement. A total of 6.65 days were lost due to mechanical breakdown or waiting on spare supplies for repair of drilling equipment, but drilling options were severely limited from 25 May to the end of the expedition by the defective drawworks limiting deployment of drill string longer than 3400 m. At Site U1499, coring ~200 m into the interpreted acoustic basement sampled sedimentary rocks, possibly including early Miocene chalks underlain by Oligocene polymict breccias and poorly cemented gravels of unknown age comprising sandstone pebbles and cobbles. Preliminary structural and lithologic analysis suggests that the gravels might be early to late synrift sediment. At Site U1500, the main seismic reflector corresponds to the top of a basalt sequence at ~1379.1 m. We cored 149.90 m into this volcanic package and recovered 114.92 m (77%) of sparsely to moderately plagioclase-phyric basalt comprising numerous lava flows, including pillow lavas with glass, chilled margins, altered veins, hyaloclastites, and minor sediment. Preliminary geochemical analyses indicate that the basalt is tholeiitic. Sampling of the Pleistocene to lower Miocene sedimentary section at Sites U1499 and U1500 was not continuous for two reasons. First, there was extremely poor recovery in substantial intervals interpreted to be poorly lithified sands, possibly turbidites. Second, we chose to drill down without coring in some sections at Site U1500 to ensure sufficient time to achieve this site’s high-priority deep drilling objectives. The upper Miocene basin sequence, which consists of interbedded claystone, siltstone, and sandstone can be correlated between the two sites by seismic stratigraphic mapping and biostratigraphy. At Site U1501 on the OMH, coring ~45 m into the acoustic basement sampled prerift(?) deposits comprising sandstone to conglomerate of presumed Mesozoic age. These deposits are overlain by siliciclastic synrift sediments of Eocene to Oligocene age followed by primarily carbonaceous postrift sediments of early Miocene to Pleistocene age. Site U1502 on Ridge A was cased to 723.7 m. No coring was attempted shallower than 380 m to save operational time and because of low expectations for core recovery in the upper Plio–Pleistocene sequence. At this site, we recovered 180 m of hydrothermally altered brecciated basalts comprising sheet and pillow lavas below deep-marine sediments of Oligocene to late Miocene age. At Site U1503 on Ridge C, 991.5 m of casing was installed in preparation for the planned deep drilling to ~1800 m. No coring was performed due to mechanical failures, and the site was abandoned without further activity except for installation of a reentry cone. Coring at Site U1504 on the OMH, located ~45 km east of Site U1501, recovered mostly foliated, greenschist facies metamorphic rocks below late Eocene(?) carbonate rocks (partly reef debris) and early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. At Site U1505, we cored to 480.15 m through Pleistocene to late Oligocene mainly carbonaceous ooze followed at depth by early Oligocene siliciclastic sediments. Efforts were made at every drill site to correlate the core with the seismic data and seismic stratigraphic unconformities interpreted in the Eocene to Plio–Pleistocene sedimentary sequence prior to drilling. The predrilling interpretation of ages of these unconformities was in general confirmed by drilling results, although some nontrivial corrections can be expected from detailed postexpedition work on integrating seismic stratigraphic interpretations with detailed bio- and lithostratigraphy. As a result of the limited length of drill string that could be deployed during the later part of Expedition 368, the secondary expedition objectives addressing the environmental history of the SCS and Southeast Asia received more focus than originally planned, allowing Site U1505 (alternate to Site U1501) to be included. Despite this change in focus, Expedition 367/368 provided solid evidence for a process of breakup that included vigorous synrift magmatism as opposed to the often-favored interpretation of the SCS margin as a magma-starved margin or a margin possibly overprinted at a much later stage by plume-related magmatism. In this broader perspective, Expedition 367/368 accomplished a fundamental objective of the two-expedition science program.« less