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  1. We present a study that examines the effects of guidance on learning about addressing ill-defined problems in undergraduate bi- ology education. Two groups of college students used an online labo- ratory named VERA to learn about ill-defined ecological phenomena. While one group received guidance, such as giving the learners a specific problem and instruction on problem-solving methods, the other group re- ceived minimal guidance. The results indicate that, while performance in a problem-solving task was not different between groups receiving more vs. minimal guidance, the group that received minimal guidance adopted a more exploratory strategy and generated more interesting models of the given phenomena in a problem-solving task. 
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  2. Virtual laboratories that enable novice scientists to construct, evaluate and revise models of complex systems heavily involve parameter estimation tasks. We seek to understand novice strategies for parameter estimation in model exploration to design better cognitive supports for them. We conducted a study of 50 college students for a parameter estimation task in exploring an ecological model. We identified three types of behavioral patterns and their underlying cognitive strategies. Specifically, the students used systematic search, problem decomposition and reduction, and global search followed by local search as their cognitive strategies 
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  3. Modeling is an important aspect of scientific problem-solving. How- ever, modeling is a difficult cognitive process for novice learners in part due to the high dimensionality of the parameter search space. This work investigates 50 college students’ parameter search behaviors in the context of ecological modeling. The study revealed important differences in behaviors of successful and unsuccessful students in navigating the parameter space. These differences suggest opportunities for future development of adaptive cognitive scaffolds to support different classes of learners 
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  4. Citizen scientists have the potential to expand scientific research. The virtual research assistant called VERA empowers citizen scientists to engage in environmental science in two ways. First, it automatically generates simulations based on the conceptual models of ecological phenomena for repeated testing and feedback. Second, it leverages the Encyclopedia of Life biodiversity knowledgebase to support the process of model construction and revision. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024