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  1. Abstract

    The tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) provides a luminous standard candle for constructing distance ladders to measure the Hubble constant. In practice, its measurements via edge-detection response (EDR) are complicated by the apparent fuzziness of the tip and the multipeak landscape of the EDR. Previously, we optimized an unsupervised algorithm, Comparative Analysis of TRGBs, to minimize the variance among multiple halo fields per host without relying on individualized choices, achieving state-of-the-art ∼<0.05 mag distance measures for optimal data. Here we apply this algorithm to an expanded sample of SN Ia hosts to standardize these to multiple fields in the geometric anchor, NGC 4258. In concert with the Pantheon+ SN Ia sample, this analysis produces a (baseline) result ofH0= 73.22 ± 2.06 km s−1Mpc−1. The largest difference inH0between this and similar studies employing the TRGB derives from corrections for SN survey differences and local flows used in the most recent SN Ia compilations that were absent in earlier studies. The SN-related differences total ∼2.0 km s−1Mpc−1. A smaller share, ∼1.4 km s−1Mpc−1, results from the inhomogeneity of the TRGB calibration across the distance ladder. We employ a grid of 108 variants around the optimal TRGB algorithm and find that the median of the variants is 72.94 ± 1.98 km s−1Mpc−1with an additional uncertainty due to algorithm choices of 0.83 km s−1Mpc−1. None of these TRGB variants result in anH0of less than 71.6 km s−1Mpc−1.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024

    We analyse new multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe out to ≈2400 d after maximum light, the latest observations to date of a SN Ia. We model the pseudo-bolometric light curve with a simple radioactive decay model and find energy input from both 57Co and 55Fe are needed to power the late-time luminosity. This is the first detection of 55Fe in a SN Ia. We consider potential sources of contamination such as a surviving companion star or delaying the deposition time-scale for 56Co positrons but these scenarios are ultimately disfavored. The relative isotopic abundances place direct constraints on the burning conditions experienced by the white dwarf (WD). Additionally, we place a conservative upper limit of <10−3 M⊙ on the synthesized mass of 44Ti. Only two classes of explosion models are currently consistent with all observations of SN 2011fe: (1) the delayed detonation of a low-ρc, near-MCh (1.2–1.3 M⊙) WD, or (2) a sub-MCh (1.0–1.1 M⊙) WD experiencing a thin-shell double detonation.

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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract We present and analyze a near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia supernova SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq obtained with NIRES at the Keck Observatory, 191 days after B -band maximum. The spectrum is dominated by a number of broad emission features, including the [Fe ii ] at 1.644 μ m, which is highly asymmetric with a tilted top and a peak redshifted by ≈2000 km s −1 . In comparison with 2D non-LTE synthetic spectra computed from 3D simulations of off-center delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass ( M ch ) white dwarf (WD) models, we find good agreement between the observed lines and the synthetic profiles, and are able to unravel the structure of the progenitor’s envelope. We find that the size and tilt of the [Fe ii ] 1.644 μ m profile (in velocity space) is an effective way to determine the location of an off-center delayed-detonation transition (DDT) and the viewing angle, and it requires a WD with a high central density of ∼4 × 10 9 g cm −3 . We also tentatively identify a stable Ni feature around 1.9 μ m characterized by a “pot-belly” profile that is slightly offset with respect to the kinematic center. In the case of SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq, we estimate that the location of the DDT is ∼0.3 M WD off center, which gives rise to an asymmetric distribution of the underlying ejecta. We also demonstrate that low-luminosity and high-density WD SN Ia progenitors exhibit a very strong overlap of Ca and 56 Ni in physical space. This results in the formation of a prevalent [Ca ii ] 0.73 μ m emission feature that is sensitive to asymmetry effects. Our findings are discussed within the context of alternative scenarios, including off-center C/O detonations in He-triggered sub- M Ch WDs and the direct collision of two WDs. Snapshot programs with Gemini/Keck/Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ELT-class instruments and our spectropolarimetry program are complementary to mid-IR spectra by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 
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  5. null (Ed.)