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  1. Atomically thin two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs) have emerged as semiconductors for next-generation nanoelectronics. As 2D-TMD-based devices typically utilize metals as the contacts, it is crucial to understand the properties of the 2D-TMD/metal interface, including the characteristics of the Schottky barriers formed at the semiconductor-metal junction. Conventional methods for investigating the Schottky barrier height (SBH) at these interfaces predominantly rely on contact-based electrical measurements with complex gating structures. In this study, we introduce an all-optical approach for non-contact measurement of the SBH, utilizing high-quality WS2/Au heterostructures as a model system. Our approach employs a below-bandgap pump to excite hot carriers from the gold into WS2 with varying thicknesses. By monitoring the resultant carrier density changes within the WS2 layers with a broadband probe, we traced the dynamics and magnitude of charge transfer across the interface. A systematic sweep of the pump wavelength enables us to determine the SBH values and unveil an inverse relationship between the SBH and the thickness of the WS2 layers. First-principles calculations reveal the correlation between the probability of injection and the density of states near the conduction band minimum of WS2. The versatile optical methodology for probing TMD/metal interfaces can shed light on the intricate charge transfer characteristics within various 2D heterostructures, facilitating the development of more efficient and scalable nano-electronic and optoelectronic technologies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 23, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 27, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Excitons, bound electron–hole pairs, in two-dimensional hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (2D HOIPs) are capable of forming hybrid light-matter states known as exciton-polaritons (E–Ps) when the excitonic medium is confined in an optical cavity. In the case of 2D HOIPs, they can self-hybridize into E–Ps at specific thicknesses of the HOIP crystals that form a resonant optical cavity with the excitons. However, the fundamental properties of these self-hybridized E–Ps in 2D HOIPs, including their role in ultrafast energy and/or charge transfer at interfaces, remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that >0.5 µm thick 2D HOIP crystals on Au substrates are capable of supporting multiple-orders of self-hybridized E–P modes. These E–Ps have high Q factors (>100) and modulate the optical dispersion for the crystal to enhance sub-gap absorption and emission. Through varying excitation energy and ultrafast measurements, we also confirm energy transfer from higher energy E–Ps to lower energy E–Ps. Finally, we also demonstrate that E–Ps are capable of charge transport and transfer at interfaces. Our findings provide new insights into charge and energy transfer in E–Ps opening new opportunities towards their manipulation for polaritonic devices.

     
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  4. null (Ed.)