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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2023
  2. Dissolution of CuO nanoparticles, releasing Cu ions, is a primary mechanism of Cu interaction in the rooting zone of plants. CuO dissolution is sometimes incorrectly considered negligible at high pH, since complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter may enhance nanoparticle dissolution. Therefore data on the effects of plant-microbial-soil interactions on nanoparticle dissolution, particularly in alkaline soils, are needed. Dissolution of CuO nanoparticles (100 mg kg −1 Cu) was studied in sand supplemented with factorial combinations of wheat growth, a root-colonizing bacterium, and saturated paste extracts (SPEs) from three alkaline, calcareous soils. In control sand systems with 3.34 mM Ca(NOmore »3 ) 2 solution, dissolved Cu was low (266 μg L −1 Cu). Addition of dissolved organic matter via wheat root metabolites and/or soil SPEs increased dissolved Cu to 795–6250 μg L −1 Cu. Dissolution was correlated with dissolved organic carbon ( R = 0.916, p < 0.0001). Ligands >3 kDa, presumably fulvic acid from the SPEs, complexed Cu driving solubility; the addition of plant exudates further increased solubility 1.5–3.5×. The root-colonizing bacterium decreased dissolved Cu in sand pore waters from planted systems due to metabolism of root exudates. Batch solubility studies (10 mg L −1 Cu) with the soil SPEs and defined solutions containing bicarbonate or fulvic acid confirmed elevated CuO nanoparticle solubility at >7.5 pH. Nanoparticle dissolution was suppressed in batch experiments compared to sand, via nanoparticle organic matter coating or homoconjugation of dissolved organic matter. Alterations of CuO nanoparticles by soil organic matter, plant exudates, and bacteria will affect dissolution and bioavailability of the CuO nanoparticles in alkaline soils.« less
  3. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are explored as fungicides and fertilizers, and are increasingly likely to be applied to agricultural soils. Consequently, interactions of CuO NPs with soil pore water (SPW) components, plants, and microbes must be understood. These experiments examined whether dissolved natural organic matter (DNOM) from SPW, or root/bacterial exudates, changed wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. v. Deloris) responses to 100 mg kg −1 (Cu/sand) as CuO NPs. Seedlings were grown in sand with 3.34 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or one of three SPWs, differing in DNOM concentration and composition. At 10 days post-germination, CuO NPs stunted roots bymore »59% in the 3.34 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 and 26–35% in the three SPWs compared to plants grown without NPs. Malate, citrate, gluconate, and 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), were elevated 1.3 to 5-fold in the rhizosphere with CuO NPs present. Cu was bioavailable through metallo-organic complexes, including Cu–DMA and Cu–gluconate. Fulvic acid in SPWs mitigated CuO NP-induced wheat root shortening. Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 eliminated malate and citrate in the rhizospheres, reduced rhizosphere dissolved Cu ∼18–66%, and reduced root Cu 39% across all SPWs while enhancing root stunting ∼17% more across all SPWs than non-inoculated wheat grown with CuO NPs. Thus, both SPW components and root microbial colonization influenced wheat responses to CuO NPs. These interactions are likely in agricultural soils with additional processes, such as ion sorption, to influence CuO NP phytotoxicity, highlighting the importance of considering not just the target plant, but soil properties and associated microbiomes when evaluating impacts of NPs in agricultural usage.« less
  4. Abstract We perform the first simultaneous Bayesian parameter inference and optimal reconstruction of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), using 100 deg 2 of polarization observations from the SPTpol receiver on the South Pole Telescope. These data reach noise levels as low as 5.8 μ K arcmin in polarization, which are low enough that the typically used quadratic estimator (QE) technique for analyzing CMB lensing is significantly suboptimal. Conversely, the Bayesian procedure extracts all lensing information from the data and is optimal at any noise level. We infer the amplitude of the gravitational lensing potential to bemore »A ϕ = 0.949 ± 0.122 using the Bayesian pipeline, consistent with our QE pipeline result, but with 17% smaller error bars. The Bayesian analysis also provides a simple way to account for systematic uncertainties, performing a similar job as frequentist “bias hardening” or linear bias correction, and reducing the systematic uncertainty on A ϕ due to polarization calibration from almost half of the statistical error to effectively zero. Finally, we jointly constrain A ϕ along with A L , the amplitude of lensing-like effects on the CMB power spectra, demonstrating that the Bayesian method can be used to easily infer parameters both from an optimal lensing reconstruction and from the delensed CMB, while exactly accounting for the correlation between the two. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the Bayesian approach on real data, and pave the way for future analysis of deep CMB polarization measurements with SPT-3G, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4, where improvements relative to the QE can reach 1.5 times tighter constraints on A ϕ and seven times lower effective lensing reconstruction noise.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Abstract SPT-3G is the third survey receiver operating on the South Pole Telescope dedicated to high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Sensitive measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB provide a powerful data set for constraining cosmology. Additionally, CMB surveys with arcminute-scale resolution are capable of detecting galaxy clusters, millimeter-wave bright galaxies, and a variety of transient phenomena. The SPT-3G instrument provides a significant improvement in mapping speed over its predecessors, SPT-SZ and SPTpol. The broadband optics design of the instrument achieves a 430 mm diameter image plane across observing bands of 95, 150, andmore »220 GHz, with 1.2′ FWHM beam response at 150 GHz. In the receiver, this image plane is populated with 2690 dual-polarization, trichroic pixels (∼16,000 detectors) read out using a 68× digital frequency-domain multiplexing readout system. In 2018, SPT-3G began a multiyear survey of 1500 deg 2 of the southern sky. We summarize the unique optical, cryogenic, detector, and readout technologies employed in SPT-3G, and we report on the integrated performance of the instrument.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022