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  1. Langran, E. (Ed.)
    Scaffolding learning in science museum exhibits can be a challenging endeavor. Learning in these settings is self-directed, sporadic, and lacking in structure (Falk, Dierking & Semmel, 2013). Museum educators and exhibit designers struggle to provide the appropriate types and amounts of scaffolding, where too little scaffolding can result in suboptimal learning outcomes while too much scaffolding can result in an “over-formalization” of the exhibit (Yoon et al., 2013). This study examines the use of signage in scaffolding students’ engagement with a science exhibit about light. Twelve students were asked to engage in four activities within the exhibit. Videos of student behavior were recorded and thematically coded. Findings indicate that textual scaffolds, as they were implemented in this exhibit, may have missed opportunities to promote meaningful engagement with exhibit activities. Implications for exhibit design practice and research are discussed.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 11, 2023
  2. Subglacial meltwater drainage can enhance localized melting along grounding zones and beneath the ice shelves of marine-terminating glaciers. Efforts to constrain the evolution of subglacial hydrology and the resulting influence on ice stability in space and on decadal to millennial timescales are lacking. Here, we apply sedimentological, geochemical, and statistical methods to analyze sediment cores recovered offshore Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica to reconstruct meltwater drainage activity through the pre-satellite era. We find evidence for a long-lived subglacial hydrologic system beneath Thwaites Glacier and indications that meltwater plumes are the primary mechanism of sedimentation seaward of the glacier today. Detailed core stratigraphy revealed through computed tomography scanning captures variability in drainage styles and suggests greater magnitudes of sediment-laden meltwater have been delivered to the ocean in recent centuries compared to the past several thousand years. Fundamental similarities between meltwater plume deposits offshore Thwaites Glacier and those described in association with other Antarctic glacial systems imply widespread and similar subglacial hydrologic processes that occur independently of subglacial geology. In the context of Holocene changes to the Thwaites Glacier margin, it is likely that subglacial drainage enhanced submarine melt along the grounding zone and amplified ice-shelf melt driven by oceanic processes, consistent withmore »observations of other West Antarctic glaciers today. This study highlights the necessity of accounting for the influence of subglacial hydrology on grounding-zone and ice-shelf melt in projections of future behavior of the Thwaites Glacier ice margin and marine-based glaciers around the Antarctic continent.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 31, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 27, 2022
  4. This study explores the impact of an immersive VR experience and middle school students’ interest in and engagement with science. Thirteen students completed a VR experience with two components: a virtual laboratory and a game. Afterwards, students were interviewed and asked to describe their experiences. Students consistently reported the VR experience to be enjoyable and engaging. Moreover, the VR experience seemed to trigger a situational interest in science among the students, with some evidence to suggest that this interest could be sustained and developed in the long term. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
  5. Type II supernovae (SNe II) show great photometric and spectroscopic diversity which is attributed to the varied physical characteristics of their progenitor and explosion properties. In this study, the third of a series of papers where we analyse a large sample of SNe II observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project-I, we present correlations between their observed and physical properties. Our analysis shows that explosion energy is the physical property that correlates with the highest number of parameters. We recover previously suggested relationships between the hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau duration, and find that more luminous SNe II with higher expansion velocities, faster declining light curves, and higher 56 Ni masses are consistent with higher energy explosions. In addition, faster declining SNe II (usually called SNe IIL) are also compatible with more concentrated 56 Ni in the inner regions of the ejecta. Positive trends are found between the initial mass, explosion energy, and 56 Ni mass. While the explosion energy spans the full range explored with our models, the initial mass generally arises from a relatively narrow range. Observable properties were measured from our grid of bolometric LC and photospheric velocity models to determine the effect of each physical parametermore »on the observed SN II diversity. We argue that explosion energy is the physical parameter causing the greatest impact on SN II diversity, that is, assuming the non-rotating solar-metallicity single-star evolution as in the models used in this study. The inclusion of pre-SN models assuming higher mass loss produces a significant increase in the strength of some correlations, particularly those between the progenitor hydrogen-rich envelope mass and the plateau and optically thick phase durations. These differences clearly show the impact of having different treatments of stellar evolution, implying that changes in the assumption of standard single-star evolution are necessary for a complete understanding of SN II diversity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. ABSTRACT The ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and optical spectroscopic observations of SN 2020acat covering ∼250 d after explosion are presented here. Using the fast rising photometric observations, spanning from the UV to NIR wavelengths, a pseudo-bolometric light curve was constructed and compared to several other well-observed Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb). SN 2020acat displayed a very short rise time reaching a peak luminosity of $\mathrm{{\rm Log}_{10}}(L) = 42.49 \pm 0.17 \, \mathrm{erg \, s^{-1}}$ in only ∼14.6 ± 0.3 d. From modelling of the pseudo-bolometric light curve, we estimated a total mass of 56Ni synthesized by SN 2020acat of MNi = 0.13 ± 0.03 M⊙, with an ejecta mass of Mej = 2.3 ± 0.4 M⊙ and a kinetic energy of Ek = 1.2 ± 0.3 × 1051 erg. The optical spectra of SN 2020acat display hydrogen signatures well into the transitional period (≳ 100 d), between the photospheric and the nebular phases. The spectra also display a strong feature around 4900  Å that cannot be solely accounted for by the presence of the Fe ii 5018 line. We suggest that the Fe ii feature was augmented by He i 5016 and possibly by the presence of N ii 5005. From both photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we inferred that the progenitor of SN 2020acat was an intermediate-mass compact star with an MZAMS of 15–20 M⊙.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 27, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT In the fourth paper of this series, we present – and publicly release – the state-of-the-art catalogue and atlases for the two remaining parallel fields observed with the Hubble Space Telescope for the large programme on ω Centauri. These two fields are located at ∼12 arcmin from the centre of the globular cluster (in the west and south-west directions) and were imaged in filters from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Both fields were observed at two epochs separated by about 2 yr that were used to derive proper motions and to compute membership probabilities.
  8. ABSTRACT We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectroscopy of ESO 253−G003, which hosts a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko, observed as part of the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field of Nearby Galaxies survey. The MUSE observations reveal that the inner region hosts two AGN separated by $1.4\pm 0.1~\rm {kpc}$ (≈1${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$7). The brighter nucleus has asymmetric broad permitted emission-line profiles and is associated with the archival AGN designation. The fainter nucleus does not have a broad emission-line component but exhibits other AGN characteristics, including $\hbox{$v_{\rm {FWHM}}$} \approx 700~\hbox{km~s$^{-1}$}$ forbidden line emission, $\rm{\log _{10}(\rm{[O\,\small {III}]}/\rm{H\beta})} \approx 1.1$, and high-excitation potential emission lines, such as [Fe vii] λ6086 and He ii λ4686. The host galaxy exhibits a disturbed morphology with large kpc-scale tidal features, potential outflows from both nuclei, and a likely superbubble. A circular relativistic disc model cannot reproduce the asymmetric broad emission-line profiles in the brighter nucleus, but two non-axisymmetric disc models provide good fits to the broad emission-line profiles: an elliptical disc model and a circular disc + spiral arm model. Implications for the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko are discussed.
  9. Abstract We present 75 near-infrared (NIR; 0.8−2.5 μ m) spectra of 34 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SESNe) obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), encompassing optical spectroscopic Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL. The spectra range in phase from pre-maximum to 80 days past maximum. This unique data set constitutes the largest NIR spectroscopic sample of SESNe to date. NIR spectroscopy provides observables with additional information that is not available in the optical. Specifically, the NIR contains the strong lines of He i and allows a more detailed look at whether Type Ic supernovae are completely stripped of their outer He layer. The NIR spectra of SESNe have broad similarities, but closer examination through statistical means reveals a strong dichotomy between NIR “He-rich” and “He-poor” SNe. These NIR subgroups correspond almost perfectly to the optical IIb/Ib and Ic/Ic-BL types, respectively. The largest difference between the two groups is observed in the 2 μ m region, near the He i λ 2.0581 μ m line. The division between the two groups is not an arbitrary one along a continuous sequence. Early spectra of He-rich SESNe show much stronger He i λ 2.0581 μ m absorption compared to the He-poor group, but withmore »a wide range of profile shapes. The same line also provides evidence for trace amounts of He in half of our SNe in the He-poor group.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023