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  1. Large-eddy simulation was used to model turbulent atmospheric surface layer (ASL) flow over canopies composed of streamwise-aligned rows of synthetic trees of height,$h$, and systematically arranged to quantify the response to variable streamwise spacing,$\delta _1$, and spanwise spacing,$\delta _2$, between adjacent trees. The response to spanwise and streamwise heterogeneity has, indeed, been the topic of a sustained research effort: the former resulting in formation of Reynolds-averaged counter-rotating secondary cells, the latter associated with the$k$- and$d$-type response. No study has addressed the confluence of both, and results herein show secondary flow polarity reversal across ‘critical’ values of$\delta _1$and$\delta _2$. For$\delta _2/\delta \lesssim 1$and$\gtrsim 2$, where$\delta$is the flow depth, the counter-rotating secondary cells are aligned such that upwelling and downwelling, respectively, occurs above the elements. The streamwise spacing$\delta _1$regulates this transition, with secondary cell reversal occurring first for the largest$k$-type cases, as elevated turbulence production within the canopy necessitates entrainment of fluid from aloft. The results are interpreted through the lens of a benchmark prognostic closure for effective aerodynamic roughness,$z_{0,{Eff.}} = \alpha \sigma _h$, where$\alpha$is a proportionality constant and$\sigma _h$is height root mean square. We report$\alpha \approx 10^{-1}$, the value reported over many decades for a broad range of rough surfaces, for$k$-type cases at small$\delta _2$, whereas the transition to$d$-type arrangements necessitates larger$\delta _2$. Though preliminary, results highlight the non-trivial response to variation of streamwise and spanwise spacing.

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  2. Langmuir circulation, a key turbulent process in the upper ocean, is mechanistically driven and sustained by imposed atmospheric wind stress and surface wave drift. In addition, and specifically in coastal zones, the presence of a mean current – whether associated with tidal currents or large-scale eddies – generates bottom-boundary-layer shear, which further modulates the physical attributes of coastal-zone Langmuir turbulence. We show that the presence of bottom-boundary-layer shear generated by oblique forcing between the mean current, atmospheric drag, and monochromatic wave field direction changes the orientation of the resultant, large-scale Langmuir cells. A model to predict this resultant orientation, based on salient parameters defining the forcing obliquity, is proposed. We also perform a systematic parametric study to isolate the ‘turning’ influence of salient parameters, which reveals that the resultant Langmuir cell orientation is always intermediate to the imposed forces. In order to provide a rigorous basis for the results, we study terms responsible for sustenance of streamwise vorticity, and provide a theoretical justification for the observed results. 
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  3. Large-scale modes of climate variability can force widespread crop yield anomalies and are therefore often presented as a risk to food security. We quantify how modes of climate variability contribute to crop production variance. We find that the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) together account for 18, 7, and 6% of globally aggregated maize, soybean, and wheat production variability, respectively. The lower fractions of global-scale soybean and wheat production variability result from substantial but offsetting climate-forced production anomalies. All climate modes are important in at least one region studied. In 1983, ENSO, the only mode capable of forcing globally synchronous crop failures, was responsible for the largest synchronous crop failure in the modern historical record. Our results provide the basis for monitoring, and potentially predicting, simultaneous crop failures. 
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  4. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of interannual climate variability. ENSO life cycles and the associated teleconnections evolve over multiple years at a global scale. This analysis is the first attempt to characterize the structure of the risk posed by trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections to crop production in the greater Pacific Basin region. In this analysis we identify the large-scale atmospheric dynamics of ENSO teleconnections that affect heat and moisture stress during the growing seasons of maize, wheat and soy. We propose a coherent framework for understanding how trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections pose a correlated risk to crop yields in major agricultural belts of the Americas, Australia and China over the course of an ENSO life cycle by using observations and a multi-model ensemble of climate anomalies during crop flowering seasons. Trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections are often (but not always) offsetting between major producing regions in the Americas and those in northern China or Australia. El Niños tend to create good maize and soybean growing conditions in the US and southeast South America, but poor growing conditions in northern China, southern Mexico and the Cerrado in Brazil. The opposite is true during La Niña. Wheat growing conditions in southeast South America generally have the opposite sign of those in Australia. Furthermore, multi-year La Niñas can force multi-year growing season anomalies in Argentina and Australia. Most ENSO teleconnections relevant for crop flowering seasons are the result of a single trans-Pacific circulation anomaly that develops in boreal summer and persists through the following spring. During the late summer and early fall of a developing ENSO event, the tropical Pacific forces an atmospheric anomaly in the northern midlatitudes that spans the Pacific from northern China to North America and in the southern midlatitudes from Australia to southeast South America. This anomaly directly links the soybean and maize growing seasons of the US, Mexico and China and the wheat growing seasons of Argentina, southern Brazil and Australia. The ENSO event peaks in boreal winter, when the atmospheric circulation anomalies intensify and affect maize and soybeans in southeast South America. As the event decays, the ENSO-induced circulation anomalies persist through the wheat flowering seasons in China and the US. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2025
  6. Abstract

    We present Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM) and Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT) searches for gamma-ray/X-ray counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) candidate events identified during the third observing run of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. Using Fermi-GBM onboard triggers and subthreshold gamma-ray burst (GRB) candidates found in the Fermi-GBM ground analyses, the Targeted Search and the Untargeted Search, we investigate whether there are any coincident GRBs associated with the GWs. We also search the Swift-BAT rate data around the GW times to determine whether a GRB counterpart is present. No counterparts are found. Using both the Fermi-GBM Targeted Search and the Swift-BAT search, we calculate flux upper limits and present joint upper limits on the gamma-ray luminosity of each GW. Given these limits, we constrain theoretical models for the emission of gamma rays from binary black hole mergers.

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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024