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  1. Biopyrrin pigments, which result from the degradation of heme in biological settings, feature three or two pyrrole rings and characteristic pyrrolin-2-one termini. These scaffolds serve as redox-active ligands and electron reservoirs in coordination compounds. Tripyrrin-1,14-dione coordinates divalent transition metals as a dianionic ligand hosting a delocalized radical. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of palladium(II) and platinum(II) tripyrrindione complexes featuring a primary amine (i.e., aniline, tert-butylamine, 1,2-ethylenediamine) at the fourth coordination site within square planar geometries. Interligand hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed between the coordinated amine and the carbonyl groups on the tripyrrindione scaffold. Notably, 1,2-ethylenediamine is employed to link two Pt(II) tripyrrindione complexes. As revealed by optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, all resulting complexes present ligand-based radicals that are stable at room temperature and when exposed to air. Spin pairing through multicenter interactions leads to [Formula: see text]-dimerization of the tripyrrindione radicals and a decrease in the EPR signal at low temperatures. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the ligand system undergoes quasi-reversible one-electron oxidation and reduction, thus confirming the ability of tripyrrindione to form square planar complexes in three different redox states. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 19, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Chemical anomalies in polar ice core records are frequently linked to volcanism; however, without the presence of (crypto)tephra particles, links to specific eruptions remain speculative. Correlating tephras yields estimates of eruption timing and potential source volcano, offers refinement of ice core chronologies, and provides insights into volcanic impacts. Here, we report on sparse rhyolitic glass shards detected in the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core (West Antarctica), attributed to the 1.8 ka Taupō eruption (New Zealand)—one of the largest and most energetic Holocene eruptions globally. Six shards of a distinctive geochemical composition, identical within analytical uncertainties to proximal Taupō glass, are accompanied by a single shard indistinguishable from glass of the ~25.5 ka Ōruanui supereruption, also from Taupō volcano. This double fingerprint uniquely identifies the source volcano and helps link the shards to the climactic phase of the Taupō eruption. The englacial Taupō-derived glass shards coincide with a particle spike and conductivity anomaly at 278.84 m core depth, along with trachytic glass from a local Antarctic eruption of Mt. Melbourne. The assessed age of the sampled ice is 230 ± 19 CE (95% confidence), confirming that the published radiocarbon wiggle-match date of 232 ± 10 CE (2 SD) for the Taupō eruption is robust.

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  3. The tripyrrin-1,14-dione biopyrrin, which shares the scaffold of several naturally occurring heme metabolites, is a redox-active platform for metal coordination. We report the synthesis of square planar platinum( ii ) tripyrrindiones, in which the biopyrrin binds as a tridentate radical and the fourth coordination position is occupied by either aqua or tert -butyl isocyanide ligands. These complexes are stable through chromatographic purification and exposure to air. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data and density functional theory (DFT) analysis confirm that the spin density is located predominantly on the tripyrrindione ligand. Pancake bonding in solution between the Pt( ii ) tripyrrindione radicals leads to the formation of diamagnetic π dimers at low temperatures. The identity of the monodentate ligand ( i.e. , aqua vs . isocyanide) affects both the thermodynamic parameters of dimerization and the tripyrrindione-based redox processes in these complexes. Isolation and structural characterization of the oxidized complexes revealed stacking of the diamagnetic tripyrrindiones in the solid state as well as a metallophilic Pt( ii )−Pt( ii ) contact in the case of the aqua complex. Overall, the properties of Pt( ii ) tripyrrindiones, including redox potentials and intermolecular interactions in solution and in the solid state, are modulated through easily accessible changes in the redox state of the biopyrrin ligand or the nature of the monodentate ligand. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 10, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2023
  6. Abstract Tephra is a unique volcanic product with an unparalleled role in understanding past eruptions, long-term behavior of volcanoes, and the effects of volcanism on climate and the environment. Tephra deposits also provide spatially widespread, high-resolution time-stratigraphic markers across a range of sedimentary settings and thus are used in numerous disciplines (e.g., volcanology, climate science, archaeology). Nonetheless, the study of tephra deposits is challenged by a lack of standardization that inhibits data integration across geographic regions and disciplines. We present comprehensive recommendations for tephra data gathering and reporting that were developed by the tephra science community to guide future investigators and to ensure that sufficient data are gathered for interoperability. Recommendations include standardized field and laboratory data collection, reporting and correlation guidance. These are organized as tabulated lists of key metadata with their definition and purpose. They are system independent and usable for template, tool, and database development. This standardized framework promotes consistent documentation and archiving, fosters interdisciplinary communication, and improves effectiveness of data sharing among diverse communities of researchers. 
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  7. Low molecular weight hydrogels are made of small molecules that aggregate via noncovalent interactions. Here, comprehensive characterization of the physical and chemical properties of hydrogels made from thioglycolipids of the disaccharides lactose and cellobiose with simple alkyl chains is reported. While thiolactoside hydrogels are robust, thiocellobioside gels are metastable, precipitating over time into fibrous crystals that can be entangled to create pseudo-hydrogels. Rheology confirms the viscoelastic solid nature of these hydrogels with storage moduli ranging from 10–600 kPa. Additionally, thiolactoside hydrogels are thixotropic which is a desirable property for many potential applications. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of xerogels shows layers of stacked sheets that are entangled into networks. These structures are unique compared to the fibers or ribbons typically reported for hydrogels. Differential scanning calorimetry provides gel-to-liquid phase transition temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Prodan fluorescence spectroscopy allows assignment of phase transitions in the gels and other lyotropic phases of high concentration samples. Phase diagrams are estimated for all hydrogels at 1–10 wt% from 5 to ≥ 80 °C. These hydrogels represent a series of interesting materials with unique properties that make them attractive for numerous potential applications. 
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