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  1. Abstract The metal additive manufacturing industry is actively developing instruments and strategies to enable higher productivity, optimal build quality, and controllable as-built microstructure. A beam controlling technique, laser oscillation has shown potential in all these aspects in laser welding; however, few attempts have been made to understand the underlying physics of the oscillating keyholes/melt pools which are the prerequisites for these strategies to become a useful tool for laser-based additive manufacturing processes. Here, to address this gap, we utilized a synchrotron-based X-ray operando technique to image the dynamic keyhole oscillation in Ti-6Al-4V using a miniature powder bed fusion setup. We found good agreement between the experimental observations and simulations performed with a validated Lattice Boltzmann multiphysics model. The study revealed the continuous and periodic fluctuations in the characteristic keyhole parameters that are unique to the oscillating laser beam processing and responsible for the chevron pattern formation at solidification. In particular, despite the intrinsic longer-range fluctuation, the oscillating technique displayed potential for reducing keyhole instability, mitigating porosity formation, and altering surface topology. These insights on the oscillating keyhole dynamics can be useful for the future development and application of this technique. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. This study investigates the use of hydride-dehydride non-spherical Ti-6Al-4V powders in laser powder bed fusion process and the effects of post-heat-treatments on additively manufactured parts. As-built parts show anisotropic microstructure with α′ martensite and some β phases. Post heat-treated parts exhibit α + β phases, with characteristics dependent on the heat treatment. Heat treatment below β-transus leads to homogenized grain structures with improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical analysis reveals a very stable corrosion rate due to faster formation of a protective passive layer aided by the fine-structured β phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy examines corrosion behavior and film growth mechanism in saline water. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Larval net-spinning caddisflies (Hydropsychidae) function as ecosystem engineers in streams where they construct protective retreats composed of organic and inorganic material affixed with silk filtration nets that alter streambed hydrology. We hypothesized that hydropsychid bio-structures (retreats, nets) are microhabitats for microbes with oxygen-sensitive metabolisms, and therefore increase the metabolic heterogeneity of streambed microbial assemblages. Metagenomic and 16 S rRNA gene amplicon analysis of samples from a montane stream (Cherry Creek, Montana, USA) revealed that microbiomes of caddisfly bio-structures are taxonomically and functionally distinct from those of the immediately adjacent rock biofilm (~2 cm distant) and enriched in microbial taxa with established roles in denitrification, nitrification, and methane production. Genes for denitrification, high oxygen affinity terminal oxidases, hydrogenases, oxidative dissimilatory sulfite reductases, and complete ammonia oxidation are significantly enriched in caddisfly bio-structures. The results suggest a novel ecosystem engineering effect of caddisflies through the creation of low-oxygen, denitrifier-enriched niches in the stream microbiome. Facilitation of metabolic diversity in streambeds may be a largely unrecognized mechanism by which caddisflies alter whole-stream biogeochemistry.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. Transitions of control are an important safety concern for human-automation teams and automated vehicle safety. While trust and situation awareness have been observed to influence transitions of control in automated vehicles, there are few objective measurements, making these concepts difficult to operationalize in increasingly automated decision systems. In this study, we take a step towards quantifying trust by mapping latent driver beliefs extracted from an active inference-factor analysis model of driver behavior and cognitive dynamics to subjective responses to trust questionnaires. Our results show that subjective trust is primarily correlated with model parameters affecting perceptual evidence accumulation rate, and the same parameters are significantly correlated with driver age.

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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  9. Raina, Jean-Baptiste (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Nutrient availability can significantly influence microbial genomic and proteomic streamlining, for example, by selecting for lower nitrogen to carbon ratios. Oligotrophic open ocean microbes have streamlined genomic nitrogen requirements relative to those of their counterparts in nutrient-rich coastal waters. However, steep gradients in nutrient availability occur at meter-level, and even micron-level, spatial scales. It is unclear whether such gradients also structure genomic and proteomic stoichiometry. Focusing on the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we use comparative metagenomics to examine how nitrogen availability shapes microbial and viral genome properties along the vertical gradient across the OMZ and between two size fractions, distinguishing free-living microbes versus particle-associated microbes. We find a substantial increase in the nitrogen content of encoded proteins in particle-associated over free-living bacteria and archaea across nitrogen availability regimes over depth. Within each size fraction, we find that bacterial and viral genomic nitrogen tends to increase with increasing nitrate concentrations with depth. In contrast to cellular genes, the nitrogen content of virus proteins does not differ between size fractions. We identified arginine as a key amino acid in the modulation of the C:N ratios of core genes for bacteria, archaea, and viruses. Functional analysis reveals that particle-associated bacterial metagenomes are enriched for genes that are involved in arginine metabolism and organic nitrogen compound catabolism. Our results are consistent with nitrogen streamlining in both cellular and viral genomes on spatial scales of meters to microns. These effects are similar in magnitude to those previously reported across scales of thousands of kilometers. IMPORTANCE The genomes of marine microbes can be shaped by nutrient cycles, with ocean-scale gradients in nitrogen availability being known to influence microbial amino acid usage. It is unclear, however, how genomic properties are shaped by nutrient changes over much smaller spatial scales, for example, along the vertical transition into oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) or from the exterior to the interior of detrital particles. Here, we measure protein nitrogen usage by marine bacteria, archaea, and viruses by using metagenomes from the nitracline of the eastern tropical North Pacific OMZ, including both particle-associated and nonassociated biomass. Our results show higher genomic and proteomic nitrogen content in particle-associated microbes and at depths with higher nitrogen availability for cellular and viral genomes. This discovery suggests that stoichiometry influences microbial and viral evolution across multiple scales, including the micrometer to millimeter scale associated with particle-associated versus free-living lifestyles. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 27, 2024