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  1. Males, Jamie (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 2, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2025
  3. Turtlegrass virus X, which infects the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, is the only potexvirus known to infect marine flowering plants. We investigated potexvirus distribution in seagrasses using a degenerate reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay originally designed to capture potexvirus diversity in terrestrial plants. The assay, which implements Potex-5 and Potex-2RC primers, successfully amplified a 584 nt RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) fragment from TVX-infected seagrasses. Following validation, we screened 74 opportunistically collected, apparently healthy seagrass samples for potexviruses using this RT-PCR assay. The survey examined the host species T. testudinum, Halodule wrightii, Halophila stipulacea, Syringodium filiforme, Ruppia maritima, Zostera marina. Potexvirus PCR products were successfully generated only from T. testudinum samples and phylogenetic analysis of sequenced PCR products revealed five distinct TVX sequence variants. Although the RT-PCR assay revealed limited potexvirus diversity in seagrasses, the expanded geographic distribution of TVX shown here emphasizes the importance of future studies to investigate T. testudinum populations across its native range and understand how the observed fine-scale genetic diversity affects host-virus interactions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2025
  4. Background This comparative case study examined the use of math walks with middle grade youths and adult facilitators in an informal STEM learning space. Math walks are place-based walking tours where youths and facilitators critically examine and ask math-related questions about their environment. Method Drawing on situated theories of learning and frameworks for understanding group participation, we examined how facilitators constrained or supported youths’ mathematical thinking as they participated in math walks at the local zoo. Results Using interaction and stance analysis, we identified, analyzed, and compared three contrasting cases: In the first case, the facilitator may have overly constrained youths’ mathematical thinking by asking leading questions and not providing time for youths to discuss their personal interests. In the second case, the facilitator may have underly constrained youths’ mathematical thinking by allowing youths to ask too many new questions without refining or developing any one specific question. In the third case, the facilitator supported mathematical thinking by praising youths’ work, layering on mathematical terminology, and providing clear and actionable instructions for how youths could refine their mathematical questions. Conclusions Findings support efforts to understand how adult facilitators can support youths in seeing mathematics within and asking mathematical questions about the world around them. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  5. In the dynamically stepwise reaction pathway C–H insertionversusCope selectivity is highly influenced by whether or not vibrational synchronization occurs in the nonstatistical entropic intermediate.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 17, 2025
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  8. Block copolymer self-assembly in conjunction with nonsolvent-induced phase separation (SNIPS) has been increasingly leveraged to fabricate integral-asymmetric membranes. The large number of formulation and processing parameters associated with SNIPS, however, has prevented the reliable construction of high performance membranes. In this study, we apply dynamical self-consistent field theory to model the SNIPS process and investigate the effect of various parameters on the membrane morphology: solvent selectivity, nonsolvent selectivity, initial film composition, and glass transition composition. We examine how solvent selectivity and concentration of polymers in the film impact the structure of micelles that connect to form the membrane matrix. In particular, we find that preserving the order in the surface layer and forming a connection between the supporting and surface layer are nontrivial and sensitive to each parameter studied. The effect of each parameter is discussed, and suggestions are made for successfully fabricating viable block copolymer membranes.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 21, 2025
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2025
  10. Gossmann, Toni (Ed.)

    Understanding and predicting the relationships between genotype and phenotype is often challenging, largely due to the complex nature of eukaryotic gene regulation. A step towards this goal is to map how phenotypic diversity evolves through genomic changes that modify gene regulatory interactions. Using the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) and related species, we integrate mRNA-seq, proteomic, ATAC-seq and whole genome resequencing data to understand how specific evolutionary modifications to gene regulatory network components produce differences in venom gene expression. Through comparisons within and between species, we find a remarkably high degree of gene expression and regulatory network variation across even a shallow level of evolutionary divergence. We use these data to test hypotheses about the roles of specific trans-factors and cis-regulatory elements, how these roles may vary across venom genes and gene families, and how variation in regulatory systems drive diversity in venom phenotypes. Our results illustrate that differences in chromatin and genotype at regulatory elements play major roles in modulating expression. However, we also find that enhancer deletions, differences in transcription-factor expression, and variation in activity of the insulator protein CTCF also likely impact venom phenotypes. Our findings provide insight into the diversity and gene-specificity of gene regulatory features and highlight the value of comparative studies to link gene regulatory network variation to phenotypic variation.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2025