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  4. Land plants have evolved successive changes during their conquest of the land and innovations in sexual reproduction have played a major role in their terrestrialization. Recent years have seen many revealing dissections of the molecular mechanisms of sexual reproduction and much new genomics data from the land plant lineage, including early diverging land plants, as well as algae. This new knowledge is being integrated to further understand how sexual reproduction in land plants evolved, identifying highly conserved factors and pathways, but also molecular changes that underpinned the emergence of new modes of sexual reproduction. Here, we review recent advances inmore »the knowledge of land plant sexual reproduction from an evolutionary perspective and also revisit the evolution of angiosperm double fertilization.« less
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  6. Plastics have revolutionized modern life, but have created a global waste crisis driven by our reliance and demand for low-cost, disposable materials. New approaches are vital to address challenges related to plastics waste heterogeneity, along with the property reductions induced by mechanical recycling. Chemical recycling and upcycling of polymers may enable circularity through separation strategies, chemistries that promote closed-loop recycling inherent to macromolecular design, and transformative processes that shift the life-cycle landscape. Polymer upcycling schemes may enable lower-energy pathways and minimal environmental impacts compared with traditional mechanical and chemical recycling. The emergence of industrial adoption of recycling and upcycling approachesmore »is encouraging, solidifying the critical role for these strategies in addressing the fate of plastics and driving advances in next-generation materials design.« less
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  9. ABSTRACT Observations of reionization-era analogues at z ∼ 3 are a powerful tool for constraining reionization. Rest-ultraviolet observations are particularly useful, in which both direct and indirect tracers of ionizing-photon production and escape can be observed. We analyse a sample of 124 z ∼ 3 galaxies from the Keck Lyman Continuum Spectroscopic Survey, with sensitive spectroscopic measurements of the Lyman continuum region. We present a method of removing foreground contamination from our sample using high-resolution, multiband Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We re-measure the global properties of the cleaned sample of 13 individually detected Lyman continuum sources and 107 individually undetectedmore »sources, including a sample-averaged absolute escape fraction of fesc, abs = 0.06 ± 0.01 and a sample-averaged ratio of ionizing to non-ionizing ultraviolet flux density of 〈f900/f1500〉out = 0.040 ± 0.006, corrected for attenuation from the intergalactic and circumgalactic media. Based on composite spectra, we also recover a strong positive correlation between 〈f900/f1500〉out and Lyα equivalent width (Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$)) and a negative correlation between 〈f900/f1500〉out and UV luminosity. As in previous work, we interpret the relationship between 〈f900/f1500〉out and Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$) in terms of the modulation of the escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming galaxies based on the covering fraction of neutral gas. We also use a Wλ(Ly$\rm \alpha$)-weighted 〈f900/f1500〉out to estimate an ionizing emissivity from star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 3 as ϵLyC ≃ 5.5 × 1024 erg s−1 Hz−1 Mpc−3. This estimate, evaluated using the uncontaminated sample of this work, affirms that the contribution of galaxies to the ionizing background at z ∼ 3 is comparable to that of active galactic nuclei.« less
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