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Haldorai, Anandakumar (Ed.)Cybersecurity affects us all in our daily lives. New knowledge on best practices, new vulnerabilities, and timely fixes for cybersecurity issues is growing super-linearly, and is spread across numerous, heterogeneous sources. Because of that, community contribution-based, question and answer sites have become clearinghouses for cybersecurity-related inquiries, as they have for many other topics. Historically, Stack Overflow has been the most popular platform for different kinds of technical questions, including for cybersecurity. That has been changing, however, with the advent of Security Stack Exchange, a site specifically designed for cybersecurity-related questions and answers. More recently, some cybersecurity-related subreddits of Reddit, have become hubs for cybersecurity-related questions and discussions. The availability of multiple overlapping communities has created a complex terrain to navigate for someone looking for an answer to a cybersecurity question. In this paper, we investigate how and why people choose among three prominent, overlapping, question and answer communities, for their cybersecurity knowledge needs. We aggregated data of several consecutive years of cybersecurity-related questions from Stack Overflow, Security Stack Exchange, and Reddit, and performed statistical, linguistic, and longitudinal analysis. To triangulate the results, we also conducted user surveys. We found that the user behavior across those three communities is different, in most cases. Likewise, cybersecurity-related questions asked on the three sites are different, more technical on Security Stack Exchange and Stack Overflow, and more subjective and personal on Reddit. Moreover, there appears to have been a differentiation of the communities along the same lines, accompanied by overall popularity trends suggestive of Stack Overflow’s decline and Security Stack Exchange’s rise within the cybersecurity community. Reddit is addressing the more subjective, discussion type needs of the lay community, and is growing rapidly.more » « less
null (Ed.)Neural Machine Translation (NMT) performs training of a neural network employing an encoder-decoder architecture. However, the quality of the neural-based translations predominantly depends on the availability of a large amount of bilingual training dataset. In this paper, we explore the performance of translations predicted by attention-based NMT systems for Spanish to Persian low-resource language pairs. We analyze the errors of NMT systems that occur in the Persian language and provide an in-depth comparison of the performance of the system based on variations in sentence length and size of the training dataset. We evaluate our translation results using BLEU and human evaluation measures based on the adequacy, fluency, and overall rating.more » « less
null (Ed.)This paper describes a systematic study of an approach to Farsi-Spanish low-resource Neural Machine Translation (NMT) that leverages monolingual data for joint learning of forward and backward translation models. As is standard for NMT systems, the training process begins using two pre-trained translation models that are iteratively updated by decreasing translation costs. In each iteration, either translation model is used to translate monolingual texts from one language to another, to generate synthetic datasets for the other translation model. Two new translation models are then learned from bilingual data along with the synthetic texts. The key distinguishing feature between our approach and standard NMT is an iterative learning process that improves the performance of both translation models, simultaneously producing a higher-quality synthetic training dataset upon each iteration. Our empirical results demonstrate that this approach outperforms baselines.more » « less