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  1. Segmenting 3D cell nuclei from microscopy image volumes is critical for biological and clinical analysis, enabling the study of cellular expression patterns and cell lineages. However, current datasets for neuronal nuclei usually contain volumes smaller than 0.01 cubic mm with fewer than 500 instances per volume, unable to reveal the complexity in large brain regions and restrict the investigation of neuronal structures. In this paper, we have pushed the task forward to the sub-cubic millimeter scale and curated the NucMM dataset with two fully annotated volumes: one 0.1 cubic mm electron microscopy (EM) volume containing nearly the entire zebra sh brain with around 170,000 nuclei; and one 0.25 cubic mm micro-CT (uCT) volume containing part of a mouse visual cortex with about 7,000 nuclei. With two imaging modalities and significantly increased volume size and instance numbers, we discover a great diversity of neuronal nuclei in appearance and density, introducing new challenges to the  eld. We also perform a statistical analysis to illustrate those challenges quantitatively. To tackle the challenges, we propose a novel hybrid-representation learning model that combines the merits of foreground mask, contour map, and signed distance transform to produce high-quality 3D masks. The benchmark comparisons on the NucMM datasetmore »show that our proposed method significantly outperforms state-of- the-art nuclei segmentation approaches. Code and data are available at« less
  2. Electron microscopy (EM) enables the reconstruction of neural circuits at the level of individual synapses, which has been transformative for scientific discoveries. However, due to the complex morphology, an accurate reconstruction of cortical axons has become a major challenge. Worse still, there is no publicly available large-scale EM dataset from the cortex that provides dense ground truth segmentation for axons, making it difficult to develop and evaluate large-scale axon reconstruction methods. To address this, we introduce the AxonEM dataset, which consists of two 30x30x30 cubic mm EM image volumes from the human and mouse cortex, respectively. We thoroughly proofread over 18,000 axon instances to provide dense 3D axon instance segmentation, enabling large- scale evaluation of axon reconstruction methods. In addition, we densely annotate nine ground truth subvolumes for training, per each data volume. With this, we reproduce two published state-of-the-art methods and provide their evaluation results as a baseline. We publicly release our code and data at AxonEM/index.html to foster the development of advanced methods.