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  4. UV-C exposure is an effective disinfectant for a range of bacteria and viruses. As such, UV-C treatment, in combination with a chemical wipe, is a common cleaning protocol in medical facilities. Given the increase in severe bacterial and viral agents in society, having access to environmentally friendly disinfectant methods is of increasing interest. In response, we designed, constructed, and validated a UV-C disinfection system from readily accessible components. To improve the UV-C intensity, the enclosure interior was coated with chrome paint. The system is validated usingBacillus cereus, a gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria.

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    Abstract Although the first lasers invented operated in the visible, the first on-chip devices were optimized for near-infrared (IR) performance driven by demand in telecommunications. However, as the applications of integrated photonics has broadened, the wavelength demand has as well, and we are now returning to the visible (Vis) and pushing into the ultraviolet (UV). This shift has required innovations in device design and in materials as well as leveraging nonlinear behavior to reach these wavelengths. This review discusses the key nonlinear phenomena that can be used as well as presents several emerging material systems and devices that have reached the UV–Vis wavelength range. 
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