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  1. In this work, we expand on the XENON1T nuclear recoil searches to study the individual signals of dark matter interactions from operators up to dimension eight in a chiral effective field theory (ChEFT) and a model of inelastic dark matter (iDM). We analyze data from two science runs of the XENON1T detector totaling1t×yrexposure. For these analyses, we extended the region of interest from[4.9,40.9]keVNRto[4.9,54.4]keVNRto enhance our sensitivity for signals that peak at nonzero energies. We show that the data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, with a small background overfluctuation observed peaking between 20 and50keVNR, resulting in a maximum local discovery significance of1.7σfor theVectorVectorstrangeChEFT channel for a dark matter particle of70GeV/c2and1.8σfor an iDM particle of50GeV/c2with a mass splitting of100keV/c2. For each model, we report 90% confidence level upper limits. We also report upper limits on three benchmark models of dark matter interaction using ChEFT where we investigate the effect of isospin-breaking interactions. We observe rate-driven cancellations in regions of the isospin-breaking couplings, leading to up to 6 orders of magnitude weaker upper limits with respect to the isospin-conserving case.

    <supplementary-material><permissions><copyright-statement>Published by the American Physical Society</copyright-statement><copyright-year>2024</copyright-year></permissions></supplementary-material></sec> </div> <a href='#' class='show open-abstract' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a> <a href='#' class='hide close-abstract' style='margin-left:10px;'>« less</a> <div class="actions" style="padding-left:10px;"> <span class="reader-count"> Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025</span> </div> </div><div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemscope itemtype=""> <div class="item-info"> <div class="title"> <a href="" itemprop="url"> <span class='span-link' itemprop="name">Design and performance of the field cage for the XENONnT experiment</span> </a> </div> <div> <strong> <a class="misc external-link" href="" target="_blank" title="Link to document DOI">  <span class="fas fa-external-link-alt"></span></a> </strong> </div> <div class="metadata"> <span class="authors"> <span class="author" itemprop="author">Aprile, E</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Abe, K</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Ahmed_Maouloud, S</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Althueser, L</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Andrieu, B</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Angelino, E</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Angevaare, J R</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Antochi, V C</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Antón_Martin, D</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Arneodo, F</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author">et al</span></span> <span class="year">( <time itemprop="datePublished" datetime="2024-02-08">February 2024</time> , The European Physical Journal C) </span> </div> <div style="cursor: pointer;-webkit-line-clamp: 5;" class="abstract" itemprop="description"> <title>Abstract

    The precision in reconstructing events detected in a dual-phase time projection chamber depends on an homogeneous and well understood electric field within the liquid target. In the XENONnT TPC the field homogeneity is achieved through a double-array field cage, consisting of two nested arrays of field shaping rings connected by an easily accessible resistor chain. Rather than being connected to the gate electrode, the topmost field shaping ring is independently biased, adding a degree of freedom to tune the electric field during operation. Two-dimensional finite element simulations were used to optimize the field cage, as well as its operation. Simulation results were compared to$${}^{83\textrm{m}}\hbox {Kr }$$83mKrcalibration data. This comparison indicates an accumulation of charge on the panels of the TPC which is constant over time, as no evolution of the reconstructed position distribution of events is observed. The simulated electric field was then used to correct the charge signal for the field dependence of the charge yield. This correction resolves the inconsistent measurement of the drift electron lifetime when using different calibrations sources and different field cage tuning voltages.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 8, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract The XENONnT detector uses the latest and largest liquid xenon-based time projection chamber (TPC) operated by the XENON Collaboration, aimed at detecting Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and conducting other rare event searches.The XENONnT data acquisition (DAQ) system constitutes an upgraded and expanded version of the XENON1T DAQ system.For its operation, it relies predominantly on commercially available hardware accompanied by open-source and custom-developed software.The three constituent subsystems of the XENONnT detector, the TPC (main detector), muon veto, and the newly introduced neutron veto, are integrated into a single DAQ, and can be operated both independently and as a unified system.In total, the DAQ digitizes the signals of 698 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), of which 253 from the top PMT array of the TPC are digitized twice, at ×10 and ×0.5 gain.The DAQ for the most part is a triggerless system, reading out and storing every signal that exceeds the digitization thresholds.Custom-developed software is used to process the acquired data, making it available within ∼30 s for live data quality monitoring and online analyses.The entire system with all the three subsystems was successfully commissioned and has been operating continuously, comfortably withstanding readout rates that exceed ∼500 MB/s during calibration.Livetime during normal operation exceeds 99% and is ∼90% during most high-rate calibrations.The combined DAQ system has collected more than 2 PB of both calibration and science data during the commissioning of XENONnT and the first science run. 
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  4. Abstract A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be ( $$32.3\,\pm \,0.3$$ 32.3 ± 0.3 ) photons/keV and ( $$40.6\,\pm \,0.5$$ 40.6 ± 0.5 ) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is ( $$68.0^{+6.3}_{-3.7}$$ 68 . 0 - 3.7 + 6.3 ) electrons/keV. The $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at ( $$2.83\,\pm \,0.02$$ 2.83 ± 0.02 ) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that $${}^{37}$$ 37 Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors. 
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  5. Abstract The XENON collaboration has published stringent limits on specific dark matter – nucleon recoil spectra from dark matter recoiling on the liquid xenon detector target. In this paper, we present an approximate likelihood for the XENON1T 1 t-year nuclear recoil search applicable to any nuclear recoil spectrum. Alongside this paper, we publish data and code to compute upper limits using the method we present. The approximate likelihood is constructed in bins of reconstructed energy, profiled along the signal expectation in each bin. This approach can be used to compute an approximate likelihood and therefore most statistical results for any nuclear recoil spectrum. Computing approximate results with this method is approximately three orders of magnitude faster than the likelihood used in the original publications of XENON1T, where limits were set for specific families of recoil spectra. Using this same method, we include toy Monte Carlo simulation-derived binwise likelihoods for the upcoming XENONnT experiment that can similarly be used to assess the sensitivity to arbitrary nuclear recoil signatures in its eventual 20 t-year exposure. 
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