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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  2. Cells interacting over an extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibit emergent behaviors, which are often observably different from single-cell dynamics. Fibroblasts embedded in a 3-D ECM, for example, compact the surrounding gel and generate an anisotropic strain field, which cannot be observed in single cellinduced gel compaction. This emergent matrix behavior results from collective intracellular mechanical interaction and is crucial to explain the large deformations and mechanical tensions that occur during embryogenesis, tissue development and wound healing. Prediction of multi-cellular interactions entails nonlinear dynamic simulation, which is prohibitively complex to compute using first principles especially as the number of cells increase. Here,more »we introduce a new methodology for predicting nonlinear behaviors of multiple cells interacting mechanically through a 3D ECM. In the proposed method, we first apply Dual- Faceted Linearization to nonlinear dynamic systems describing cell/matrix behavior. Using this unique linearization method, the original nonlinear state equations can be expressed with a pair of linear dynamic equations by augmenting the independent state variables with auxiliary variables which are nonlinearly dependent on the original states. Furthermore, we can find a reduced order latent space representation of the dynamic equations by orthogonal projection onto the basis of a lower dimensional linear manifold within the augmented variable space. Once converted to latent variable equations, we superpose multiple dynamic systems to predict their collective behaviors. The method is computationally efficient and accurate as demonstrated through its application for prediction of emergent cell induced ECM compaction.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023