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  1. Persons Excluded from science because of Ethnicity and Race (PEERs) face chronic exposure to interpersonal stressors, such as social discrimination, throughout their scientific careers, leading to a long-term decline in physical and mental health. Many PEERs exhibit John Henryism, a coping mechanism to prolonged stress where an individual expends higher levels of effort and energy at the cost of their physical and mental health. In this article, we discuss how social dominance may increase John Henryism within the STEM community; the causes, effects and costs of John Henryism; and highlight solutions to combat these social adversity stressors within the academic institution.
  2. High-resolution 3D images of organelles are of paramount importance in cellular biology. Although light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have provided the standard for imaging cellular structures, they cannot provide 3D images. However, recent technological advances such as serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) provide the tools to create 3D images for the ultrastructural analysis of organelles. Here, we describe a standardized protocol using the visualization software, Amira, to quantify organelle morphologies in 3D, thereby providing accurate and reproducible measurements of these cellular substructures. We demonstrate applications of SBF-SEM and Amira to quantify mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structures.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is widely used as an imaging modality to provide high-resolution details of subcellular components within cells and tissues. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are organelles of particular interest to those investigating metabolic disorders. A straightforward method for quantifying and characterizing particular aspects of these organelles would be a useful tool. In this protocol, we outline how to accurately assess the morphology of these important subcellular structures using open source software ImageJ, originally developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Specifically, we detail how to obtain mitochondrial length, width, area, and circularity, in addition to assessing cristae morphology and measuring mito/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. These procedures provide useful tools for quantifying and characterizing key features of sub-cellular morphology, leading to accurate and reproducible measurements and visualizations of mitochondria and ER.