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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  2. Gravitational waves provide a unique tool for observational astronomy. While the first LIGO–Virgo catalogue of gravitational wave transients (GWTC-1) contains 11 signals from black hole and neutron star binaries, the number of observations is increasing rapidly as detector sensitivity improves. To extract information from the observed signals, it is imperative to have fast, flexible, and scalable inference techniques. In a previous paper, we introduced BILBY: a modular and user-friendly Bayesian inference library adapted to address the needs of gravitational-wave inference. In this work, we demonstrate that BILBY produces reliable results for simulated gravitational-wave signals from compact binary mergers, and verifymore »that it accurately reproduces results reported for the 11 GWTC-1 signals. Additionally, we provide configuration and output files for all analyses to allow for easy reproduction, modification, and future use. This work establishes that BILBY is primed and ready to analyse the rapidly growing population of compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave signals.« less
  3. ABSTRACT During ϕX174 morphogenesis, 240 copies of the external scaffolding protein D organize 12 pentameric assembly intermediates into procapsids, a reaction reconstituted in vitro . In previous studies, ϕX174 strains resistant to exogenously expressed dominant lethal D genes were experimentally evolved. Resistance was achieved by the stepwise acquisition of coat protein mutations. Once resistance was established, a stimulatory D protein mutation that greatly increased strain fitness arose. In this study, in vitro biophysical and biochemical methods were utilized to elucidate the mechanistic details and evolutionary trade-offs created by the resistance mutations. The kinetics of procapsid formation was analyzed in vitromore »using wild-type, inhibitory, and experimentally evolved coat and scaffolding proteins. Our data suggest that viral fitness is correlated with in vitro assembly kinetics and demonstrate that in vivo experimental evolution can be analyzed within an in vitro biophysical context. IMPORTANCE Experimental evolution is an extremely valuable tool. Comparisons between ancestral and evolved genotypes suggest hypotheses regarding adaptive mechanisms. However, it is not always possible to rigorously test these hypotheses in vivo . We applied in vitro biophysical and biochemical methods to elucidate the mechanistic details that allowed an experimentally evolved virus to become resistant to an antiviral protein and then evolve a productive use for that protein. Moreover, our results indicate that the respective roles of scaffolding and coat proteins may have been redistributed during the evolution of a two-scaffolding-protein system. In one-scaffolding-protein virus assembly systems, coat proteins promiscuously interact to form heterogeneous aberrant structures in the absence of scaffolding proteins. Thus, the scaffolding protein controls fidelity. During ϕX174 assembly, the external scaffolding protein acts like a coat protein, self-associating into large aberrant spherical structures in the absence of coat protein, whereas the coat protein appears to control fidelity.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We search for gravitational-wave signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift satellites during the second half of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 November 1 15:00 UTC–2020 March 27 17:00 UTC). We conduct two independent searches: a generic gravitational-wave transients search to analyze 86 GRBs and an analysis to target binary mergers with at least one neutron star as short GRB progenitors for 17 events. We find no significant evidence for gravitational-wave signals associated with any of these GRBs. A weighted binomial test of the combined results finds nomore »evidence for subthreshold gravitational-wave signals associated with this GRB ensemble either. We use several source types and signal morphologies during the searches, resulting in lower bounds on the estimated distance to each GRB. Finally, we constrain the population of low-luminosity short GRBs using results from the first to the third observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. The resulting population is in accordance with the local binary neutron star merger rate.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) span the approximate mass range 100−10 5   M ⊙ , between black holes (BHs) that formed by stellar collapse and the supermassive BHs at the centers of galaxies. Mergers of IMBH binaries are the most energetic gravitational-wave sources accessible by the terrestrial detector network. Searches of the first two observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo did not yield any significant IMBH binary signals. In the third observing run (O3), the increased network sensitivity enabled the detection of GW190521, a signal consistent with a binary merger of mass ∼150  M ⊙ providing direct evidencemore »of IMBH formation. Here, we report on a dedicated search of O3 data for further IMBH binary mergers, combining both modeled (matched filter) and model-independent search methods. We find some marginal candidates, but none are sufficiently significant to indicate detection of further IMBH mergers. We quantify the sensitivity of the individual search methods and of the combined search using a suite of IMBH binary signals obtained via numerical relativity, including the effects of spins misaligned with the binary orbital axis, and present the resulting upper limits on astrophysical merger rates. Our most stringent limit is for equal mass and aligned spin BH binary of total mass 200  M ⊙ and effective aligned spin 0.8 at 0.056 Gpc −3 yr −1 (90% confidence), a factor of 3.5 more constraining than previous LIGO-Virgo limits. We also update the estimated rate of mergers similar to GW190521 to 0.08 Gpc −3 yr −1 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023