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  1. Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has been shown to be a very powerful technique in recent years on a wide range of applications. Much of the prior DRL work took the online learning approach. However, given the challenges of building accurate simulations for modeling student learning, we investigated applying DRL to induce a pedagogical policy through an offiine approach. In this work, we explored the effectiveness of offiine DRL for pedagogical policy induction in an Intelligent Tutoring System. Generally speaking, when applying offiine DRL, we face two major challenges: one is limited training data and the other is the credit assignment problem caused by delayed rewards. In this work, we used Gaussian Processes to solve the credit assignment problem by estimating the inferred immediate rewards from the final delayed rewards. We then applied the DQN and Double-DQN algorithms to induce adaptive pedagogical strategies tailored to individual students. Our empirical results show that without solving the credit assignment problem, the DQN policy, although better than Double-DQN, was no better than a random policy. However, when combining DQN with the inferred rewards, our best DQN policy can outperform the random yet reasonable policy, especially for students with high pre-test scores. 
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